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基于大型底栖动物的乌伦古湖水质生物学评价   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
2006年11月至2007年7月在乌伦古湖设置28个采样点按季度对底栖动物采样。共采到大型底栖动物83种,其中寡毛类14种,水生昆虫58种,软体动物7种,其他类4种。年均密度为1048ind/m2,变幅为70~2480ind/m2;年均生物量为10.76g/m2,变幅为0.48~52.53g/m2。根据底栖动物的观测数据,利用Shannon-wiener多样性生物指数(H′)、Goodnight修正指数(GBI)、Margalef丰富度指数(d)、Chandler′s生物记分制(CS)和综合生物污染指数(BI)对乌伦古湖水体环境质量的评价结果显示,乌伦古湖水质整体属于轻度污染。人类活动影响较大的区域如73公里小海子、骆驼脖子、海滨浴场和吉力湖等处样点水质相对较差,处于中污染水平;投放牛羊粪养殖鱼种的吉力湖后泡子则为重度污染水平。利用底栖动物对乌伦古湖水质的生物学评价结果与理化指标评价结果基本一致。  相似文献
2.
Abstract – Structural complexity offered by submerged macrophytes was shown to have fundamental effects on interactions between fish and their prey. However, less information is available for littoral reed (Phragmites spp.) stands. A previous field study found juvenile roach and perch to coexist within the reed stands. It was suggested that reed serves mainly as refuge against littoral piscivores, such that coexistence of perch and roach in the reed was externally forced. Several hypotheses were raised to explain why roach nevertheless showed good growth performance. Three of the hypotheses were tested experimentally. In particular, we were interested in how the confinement of fish to one of the reed or open water habitats alters feeding and growth patterns of juvenile age‐1 perch and roach. Fish were stocked separately into littoral enclosures for a 3‐week period in densities which had been found in the surrounding lake. Development of zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses was observed by sampling the enclosures three times over the experimental period. Individual consumption of prey groups by the fish was calculated with a bioenergetics model, and was compared with prey group biomass in the enclosure treatments. The confinement of fish to one littoral habitat had clear effects on diet composition and growth rates. Roach fed less zooplankton and partially switched to macroinvertebrates in the reed enclosures when compared with the open water treatments, and consequently their growth rates were lower in the reed. Perch preferred macroinvertebrates in both habitats, without any difference in growth rates between the habitats. Effects of fish predation on both zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomass were low in open water and reed enclosures. Daily consumption rates were only in a few cases higher than 40% of the available biomass of the respective prey group, but mainly were below 10% of available biomass. Therefore, we argue that both the diel horizontal migrations of roach and the relatively low consumption rate of fish when compared with the available resource biomass allow the coexistence of juvenile roach and perch in littoral reed stands.  相似文献
3.
2006年11月至2007年7月在乌伦古湖设置28个采样点按季度对底栖动物采样。共采到大型底栖动物83种,其中寡毛类14种,水生昆虫58种,软体动物7种,其他类4种。年均密度为1048ind/m2,变幅为70~2480ind/m2;年均生物量为10.76g/m2,变幅为0.48~52.53g/m2。根据底栖动物的观测数据,利用Shannon-wie-ner多样性生物指数(H′)、Goodnight修正指数(GBI)、Margalef丰富度指数(d)、Chandler′s生物记分制(CS)和综合生物污染指数(BI)对乌伦古湖水体环境质量的评价结果显示,乌伦古湖水质整体属于轻度污染。人类活动影响较大的区域如73公里小海子、骆驼脖子、海滨浴场和吉力湖等处样点水质相对较差,处于中污染水平;投放牛羊粪养殖鱼种的吉力湖后泡子则为重度污染水平。利用底栖动物对乌伦古湖水质的生物学评价结果与理化指标评价结果基本一致。  相似文献
4.
Feeding at early fish life stages is a key determinant of survival to recruitment. To understand the environmental and developmental determinants of early life stage feeding in ESA‐threatened green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), we performed a diet study in a highly managed section of California's Sacramento River, where temperature and discharge are controlled by dam releases. Utilising field collections from 2012 to 2016, we assessed the impacts of temperature, discharge and morphological development on the composition and number of prey items in larval green sturgeon diets. Results show that there are more empty stomachs at colder temperatures. Higher discharge conditions decreased prey taxon richness and counts, especially the abundance of cyclopoid copepods in diets. Fish smaller than 30 mm had teeth on the oral jaws and showed a strong reliance on zooplankton prey. The developmental loss of teeth in fish greater than 30 mm was associated with decreased zooplankton consumption and increased richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in diets. Our results show that river management through dam releases has the potential to impact the earliest life stage of green sturgeon by reducing the prevalence of favoured zooplankton prey in diets.  相似文献
5.
  1. Today, aquatic biodiversity suffers from many pressures linked to human activities, including climate change, which particularly affects alpine areas. Many alpine freshwater species have shifted their geographical distribution to colder areas, but a reduced availability of suitable habitats is also forecasted. New artificial water bodies could provide habitat enhancement opportunities, including small mountain reservoirs built to overcome a lack of snow during winter.
  2. To investigate the role of reservoirs as a habitat for freshwater invertebrates, a case study was conducted on eight reservoirs in the Swiss Alps. The study aimed to compare the water quality and freshwater biodiversity of the reservoirs with those of 39 natural and newly excavated ponds. Data were collected on physico‐chemistry, freshwater habitat structure, and aquatic insects (dragonflies and aquatic beetles).
  3. The study showed that the mountain reservoirs investigated did not differ from natural ponds in terms of surface area, conductivity, and trophic level. Similarly to natural ponds, reservoirs showed signs of impairment owing to surface run‐off carrying pollutants linked to ski tourism. They presented a low diversity of mesohabitats, and in particular lacked vegetation. Compared with natural ponds, the species richness in reservoirs was lower for dragonflies but not for beetles. At the regional scale, the community from the reservoirs was a subset of the natural ponds community, supporting 38% of the regional species richness for these two insect groups.
  4. The results suggest that mountain reservoirs are likely to be important for biodiversity in alpine areas, both as habitats and as stepping stones for species shifting their geographical range. These water bodies can be enhanced further by some nature‐friendly measures to maximize benefits for biodiversity, including margin revegetation or the creation of adjacent ponds. Ecological engineering needs to be innovative and promote freshwater biodiversity in artificial reservoirs.
  相似文献
6.
The diversity, distribution and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna as well as benthic environments were examined in the blood cockle Anadara granosa cultivations at Ban Don Bay, Suratthani Province, Southern Thailand during the summer season of April and rainy season of October in 2017. The cockle cultivations of three repeated operating ages (<5 years: S1; 5–10 years: S2; more than 10 years: S3) were selected for the study, and the sampling sites were allocated at the centre of the farm. Results indicated that there were significant differences in species number, individual number and evenness index of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna found in the two sampling seasons (p < .05) and significant differences in individual number and evenness index were found among the sampling sites (p < .05). Significant differences in pH, total phosphorus levels, sulphide levels and organic matter of sediment were found between the sampling seasons (p < .05) and differences in total nitrogen level, organic matter and clay content were found among the sampling sites (p < .05). Among the independent variables analysed, correlation analysis showed no relationship between diversity index, species richness index and evenness index and the abiotic variables (p < .05). The results of the present study suggest that the distribution and diversity variations of the benthic macroinvertebrates community fauna are not affected by all sediment parameters in various repeated cultivation of the blood cockle Anadara granosa in Bandon Bay, Suratthani Province.  相似文献
7.
  • 1. In certain lower mountainous regions of Germany multiple‐channel streams constitute the reference condition for stream restoration and conservation efforts. An increasing number of restoration projects re‐establish such stream sections, but their impact on macroinvertebrate communities remains vague and needs further elaboration.
  • 2. Seven pairs of single‐ and multiple‐channel sections of mountain rivers were compared in terms of hydromorphology and macroinvertebrate communities. The stream sections were characterized by 16 hydromorphological metrics at various scales, e.g. shore length, channel feature or substrate diversity, flow variability and substrate coverage. Macroinvertebrate data were obtained from 140 substrate‐specific samples, which were combined to form representative communities for each section. Community data were subject to similarity and cluster analyses. Thirty‐five metrics were calculated with the taxa lists, including number of taxa, abundance, feeding type, habitat and current preferences.
  • 3. Bray–Curtis similarity was very high (69–77%) between communities of single‐ and multiple‐channel sections. Biological metrics were correlated with hydromorphological parameters. Mean Spearman rank r was 0.59 (absolute values). The biological metrics percentage of the community preferring submerged vegetation, being grazers and scrapers or active filter feeders, percentage of epipotamal preference and the percentage of current preference (rheo‐ to limnophil and rheobiont) were significantly correlated with hydromorphological parameters.
  • 4. Differences between stream sections can be attributed to single taxa occurring only in either the single‐ or multiple‐channel sections. These exclusive taxa were mainly found on organic substrates such as living parts of terrestrial plants, large wood, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and mud. Reasons for high similarity of macroinvertebrate communities from single‐ or multiple‐channel sections are discussed, including the influence of large‐scale catchment pressures, length of restored sections and lack of potential re‐colonizers.
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
8.
  • 1. The imminent damming of the Odelouca River, an intermittent Mediterranean river situated in the south‐west Algarve region of Portugal with valuable stands of riparian vegetation, has called for the compulsory implementation of compensatory measures.
  • 2. In order to assess the primary environmental and human factors that drive change in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of the Odelouca, and the spatial scale at which they occur, 30 sites were sampled for benthic macroinvertebrates and extensively surveyed using River Habitat Survey (RHS) in spring 2005.
  • 3. A hierarchical cluster analysis of selected physical and RHS variables clearly indicated gradients of habitat quality (instream and riparian corridor) along both main channel and tributaries. Analysis of macroinvertebrate metrics by parametric and non‐parametric ANOVA showed the derived clusters of groups to be biologically distinct.
  • 4. From a total of 64 variables, divided into two explanatory variable groups (environmental or pressure) over three spatial scales (habitat, reach and basin), just 20, predominantly environmental, variables were retained for subsequent analyses.
  • 5. Partial canonical correspondence analyses of the selected environmental and pressure variables over the defined spatial scales showed that environmental variables contributed most significantly over all of the spatial scales and that pressure variables related to land‐use only contributed significantly at the level of the river basin.
  • 6. Variables recorded by RHS contribute successfully to the detection of habitat quality gradients in a Mediterranean river system and the strongest drivers of macroinvertebrate change are primarily, but not exclusively, environmental factors occurring at middle and higher spatial scales.
  • 7. Compensatory measures must therefore be implemented across a range of spatial scales, taking into account abiotic and biotic processes characteristic of disturbance‐driven Mediterranean systems that contribute to habitat heterogeneity and quality and confer functional and trophic diversity to the macroinvertebrate assemblages.
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
9.
2014年3月对长江中游干流水陆洲、三八滩、金城洲和牯牛沙等江段四面六边透水框架护岸工程区大型底栖动物群落进行了调查,对比分析了工程区和对照区底栖动物群落结构和多样性差异,以了解航道整治透水框架工程实施对河流底栖动物群落的影响,为河流生态水利工程建设及生态修复提供依据。在每个调查站点工程区内设置3个采样点,工程区外设置3个对照点,对照点在工程区上游或下游设置,选取水流条件不受工程区影响的区域,且保证对照点水深、岸边植被等条件与工程区样点相近。在透水框架工程区及对照区共采集底栖动物22种,隶属于3门6纲8科;摇蚊幼虫种类最多(占50.0%),其次是寡毛类(27.2%)和软体动物(13.6%)。水陆洲、三八滩、金城洲和牯牛沙等江段透水框架工程区底栖动物密度分别为1450、175、125和160 ind/m2,生物量分别为4.19、0.10、0.48和0.17 g/m2;对照区底栖动物密度分别为140、20、35和33 ind/m2,生物量分别为2.30、0.01、0.02和0.07 g/m2。底栖动物多样性指数dM、H′和J的变化范围工程区分别为0.21~1.37、0.41~1.62和0.38~0.87,对照区分别为0.14~0.40、0.28~0.96和0.41~0.68。透水框架工程区底栖动物种类丰度、密度、生物量和多样性指数表现出高于对照区的趋势,表明透水框架工程区群落结构较复杂性并提高了底栖动物的多样性,可能与透水框架群能降低河水流速、减小河水对底质的冲击有关。  相似文献
10.
Abstract  – The aim of this study was to explain the growth differences of the two sympatric sparsely rakered whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) forms in the subarctic Lake Muddusjärvi by comparing their habitat and food selection to available benthic food resources. The average number of gillrakers was 22.9 for large sparsely rakered whitefish (LSR) and 16.8 for small sparsely rakered whitefish (SSR). LSR dwelled primarily in the littoral zone at depths < 10 m, whereas SSR used mostly profundal habitats in depths > 10 m. LSR and SSR consumed mainly benthic macroinvertebrates, their abundance, biomass and diversity was highest in the littoral, decreasing towards the profundal. As the individual size of fish increased, LSR was able to shift to larger food items, which were available in the littoral. Possibility of SSR to ontogenetic food shift was scarce in the profundal, where availability of larger benthic macroinvertebrates was low. Because of abundant food resources in the littoral, growth rate of LSR was faster than that of SSR.  相似文献
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