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Six species of line-caught coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Lethrinus miniatus, Lethrinus laticaudis, Lutjanus sebae, Lutjanus malabaricus and Lutjanus erythropterus) were tagged by members of the Australian National Sportsfishing Association (ANSA) in Queensland between 1986 and 2003. Of the 14,757 fish tagged, 1607 were recaptured and we analysed these data to describe movement and determine factors likely to impact release survival. All species were classified as residents since over 80% of recaptures for each species occurred within 1 km of the release site. Few individuals (range 0.8–5%) were recaptured more than 20 km from their release point. L. sebae had a higher recapture rate (19.9%) than the other species studied (range 2.1–11.7%). Venting swimbladder gases, regardless of whether or not fish appeared to be suffering from barotrauma, significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the survival of L. sebae and L. malabaricus but had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on L. erythropterus. The condition of fish on release, subjectively assessed by anglers, was only a significant effect on recapture rate for L. sebae where fish in “fair” condition had less than half the recapture rate of those assessed as in “excellent” or “good” condition. The recapture rate of L. sebae and L. laticaudis was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by depth with recapture rate declining in depths exceeding 30 m. Overall, the results showed that depth of capture, release condition and treatment for barotrauma influenced recapture rate for some species but these effects were not consistent across all species studied. Recommendations were made to the ANSA tagging clubs to record additional information such as injury, hooking location and hook type to enable a more comprehensive future assessment of the factors influencing release survival.  相似文献
2.
Abstract  Minimum size limits may be ineffective for reef fishes because they often sustain barotrauma when caught from deep (>20 m) waters. A study was undertaken in conjunction with hook-and-line commercial fishermen to calculate discard percentages and evaluate potential release mortality of eight economically important species: black sea bass, Centropristis striata (Linnaeus), red grouper, Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes), snowy grouper, Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes), gag, Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode and Bean), scamp, Mycteroperca phenax (Jordan and Swain), vermilion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier), white grunt, Haemulon plumieri (Lacepède) and red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus). Fishing with baited hook and line occurred in 2004 and 2005 in Onslow Bay, NC, in waters 19–150 m deep. Sub-legal discard rates were 15% for vermilion snapper, 25% for red porgy, 7% for red grouper, 33% for gag, 35% for scamp and 12% for black sea bass. Although mortality based on post-release behaviour was relatively low, higher mortalities estimated from models incorporating hooking location and depth of capture suggest that minimum size limits may not provide the population benefits intended by management in the North Carolina reef fishery.  相似文献
3.
Capture‐based aquaculture (CBA) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has become increasingly important in recent years, and increased attention is being paid to animal welfare issues linked to these activities. Earlier studies showed that some cod develop secondary exophthalmia in captivity. This study investigated the development of secondary exophthalmia in two groups of wild‐caught cod, one of which was exposed to rapid decompression causing acute barotrauma (treatment group) while the other was not (control group). Photographs and radiographs before and up to 33 days after barotrauma revealed a significant increase in overall eye protrusion caused by an accumulation of gas in the orbita in the treatment group, first observed on day 9 after decompression, while no protrusions were observed in the control group. Barotrauma was thus identified as an important trigger for the development of secondary uni‐ or bilateral exophthalmia of wild‐caught cod. Two underlying mechanisms are suggested, where the more likely is residual swim bladder gas taking the route of least resistance, while the less likely is the exsolution of gas from the blood. Our results have implications for a wide range of contexts in which cod are rapidly brought to the surface from great depth.  相似文献
4.
This study assessed the effects of different retrieval depths (2, 10 or 20 m), surface intervals (none or 15 min) and release methods (untreated, vented or recompressed) on the incidence of external and internal clinical signs of barotrauma (ECSB and ICSB) and post‐release mortality in golden perch, Macquaria ambigua (Richardson). Fish were assessed for ECSB before and after surface intervals and either monitored for mortality over 3 days in two deep cages or killed for internal examination. When all fish were left untreated, short‐term mortality increased with retrieval depth from 0% and 4.2% among 2 and 10‐m fish, respectively, to 19.2% among 20‐m fish; while surface interval only affected the incidence of two ECSB (excess buoyancy and a prolapsed cloaca). Mortality was also greater among 20‐m fish that were subjected to a 15‐min surface interval and left untreated (22.2%) or vented (22.2%) than those that were recompressed (5.6%). Of the ECSB, only exophthalmia was associated with increased mortality, with half of the affected fish dying. However, many fish retrieved from 10 and 20 m also sustained numerous ICSB, including compressed gonads or vital organs and ruptured or collapsed, haemorrhaging swimbladders that remained deflated for up to 3 days after release.  相似文献
5.
The construction of fishways for upstream and downstream connectivity is the preferred mitigation measure for hydropower dams and other riverine barriers. Yet empirical evidence for effective design criteria for many species is missing. We therefore assembled a group of international fishway designers and combined their knowledge with available empirical data using a formal expert elicitation protocol and Bayesian networks. The expert elicitation method we use minimizes biases typically associated with such approaches. Demonstrating our application with a case‐study on the temperate Southern Hemisphere, we use the resulting probabilistic models to predict the following, given alternative design parameters: (i) the effectiveness of technical fishways for upstream movement of migratory fish; (ii) habitat quality in nature‐like bypasses for resident fish; and (iii) rates of mortality during downstream passage of all fish through turbines and spillways. The Fish Passage Network (Fish‐Net) predicts that fishways for native species could be near 0% or near 100% efficient depending on their design, suggesting great scope for adequate mitigation. Sensitivity analyses revealed the most important parameters as follows: (i) design of attraction and entrance features of technical fishways for upstream migration; (ii) habitat preferences of resident fish in nature‐like bypasses; and (iii) susceptibility of fish to barotrauma and blade strike during turbine passage. Numerical modelling predicted that mortality rates of small‐bodied fish (50–100 mm TL) due to blade strike may be higher for Kaplan than Francis turbines. Our findings can be used to support environmentally sustainable decisions in the planning, design and monitoring stages of hydropower development.  相似文献
6.
Overfished species of rockfish, Sebastes spp., from the Northeast Pacific experience high bycatch mortality because of ‘barotrauma’, a condition induced from the rapid change in pressure during capture. Field experiments show that it may be possible for rockfish to recover from barotrauma if quickly recompressed; however, no work has followed the physiological recovery of rockfish after recompression or determined whether it is possible for rockfish to survive barotrauma in the long term. Barotrauma was induced in adult black rockfish, Sebastes melanops Girard, from a simulated depth of 35 m, followed by recompression. Blood and selected tissues (eye, heart ventricle, head kidney, liver, rete mirabile and gonad) were sampled at days 3, 15 and 31 post‐recompression to evaluate the tissue‐ and physiologic‐level response during recovery. No mortality from barotrauma occurred during the experiments, and feeding resumed in 80% of both treatment and control fish. The primary injury in treatment fish was the presence of a ruptured swimbladder and/or a ruptured tunica externa (outer layer of swimbladder), which was slow to heal. Blood plasma was analysed for glucose, sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, insulin‐like growth factor‐1 and cortisol. Plasma analyses indicated no strong effects because of barotrauma, suggesting overall handling stress outweighed any effect from barotrauma. Rockfish with ruptured swimbladders may face compromised competency in the wild; however, it appears the majority of black rockfish decompressed from 35 m have a high potential for recovery if recompressed immediately after capture. This research suggests recompression could be a valuable bycatch mortality reduction tool for rockfish in recreational fisheries.  相似文献
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