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Abstract –  We examined whether solvent-based lipid extractions, commonly used for stable isotope analysis (SIA) of biota, alters δ 15N or δ 13C values of fish muscle tissue or whole juvenile fish. Lipid extraction from muscle tissue led to only small (<1‰) isotope shifts in δ 13C and δ 15N values. By contrast, ecologically significant shifts (+3.4‰ for δ 13C and +2.8‰ for δ 15N) were observed for whole juvenile fish. Sample variance was not affected by lipid extraction. For tissue-specific SIA, two sample aliquots may be required: a lipid-extracted aliquot for stable carbon isotope analysis when differing lipid content among tissues is a concern, and a nonextracted aliquot for δ 15N determination. Whole organism SIA is not recommended because of the mix of tissues having different turnover times; for very small fish, we recommend that fish be eviscerated, decapitated, and skinned to minimise differences with samples of muscle tissue.  相似文献
人工配合饲料与天然饵料对中国对虾生长贡献的研究   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
利用稳定同位素碳比率δ13C(13C/12C)作为天然示踪物,对池塘养殖生态系(室内和围隔)中人工投喂配合饲料和天然饵料提供的能源物质对养殖中国对虾生长的贡献比例进行研究.室内分别以δ13C值不同的配合饲料和日本刺沙蚕喂养中国对虾(0.961±0.012)g的实验结果表明,虾体的δ13C值受到食物δ13C值的影响;在等量(干重)混合喂食的情况下,中国对虾生长能量的61.67%来源于投喂的沙蚕,而配合饲料只贡献了38.33%.池塘围隔养殖的中国对虾虾体、有机肥(鸡粪)和投喂配合饲料的δ13C值测定表明,以有机肥为碳源的天然饵料对中国对虾生长的贡献随生长逐渐减小,配合饲料的作用增大.养殖初期的幼虾(0.06±0.01)g,配合饲料只提供了生长能量的23.9%,而收获时(9.56±1.04)g,配合饲料对中国对虾生长的贡献率可达到61.6%.  相似文献
利用氮稳定同位素示踪技术,对2005年4-5月长江口及南黄海毗邻水域拖网渔获物的营养级进行了研究.结果表明,长江口海域主要生物资源种类的营养级处于3.19~5.11,集中在3.70~4.65;南黄海海域主要生物资源种类的营养级处于2.46~4.88,集中在3.90~4.40.基于系统基线生物稳定同位素比值的影响,相对南黄海,长江口海域55%生物的相对营养级增加,增加幅度为0.01~0.63,集中在0.01~0.06,其生物数鼍占了总生物数量的30%;40%生物的相对营养级减少的,减少幅度为0.02~0.74,集中在0~0.21,其生物数量占总生物数量的30%;以上结果接近用胃含物分析法得到的生物营养级空间变幅绝对值.将营养级的胃含物分析结果与氮稳定同位素计算结果相比,长江口9种鱼类2种方法计算结果变幅绝对值为0.01~1.21;南黄海11种鱼类2种方法计算结果变幅绝对值为0.08~1.26;两海域的计算结果变幅绝对值差异较小.结论认为,两海域生物资源种类的营养级存在空间差异,随生物种类差异有所不同;稳定同位素法与胃含物分析法的计算结果差异较小.  相似文献
Abstract – Energy transfer mechanisms often cannot be identified with either an isotope or a food habits analysis; however, a combined assessment provided collaborative support for depicting backwater food webs. Lateral dimensions in riverine function substantially influence backwater ecology; however, backwater communities are highly dynamic and infrequently investigated due to logistical difficulties. We created seasonal food webs for an upper Missouri River backwater using a combined food habits and stable isotope analysis. Temporal transition of energy origins was apparent. In the spring, carbon primarily originated from sediments, detritus and periphyton. During mid-summer, carbon was derived from a variety of sources, but included large proportions of terrestrial plants and particulate organic matter. By early fall, the backwater was uncoupled from the river, and autochthonous phytoplankton appeared to be the dominant carbon source. During all sample periods, Chironomidae was an important trophic link conveying energy from the primary producers to the higher consumers. Additionally, zooplankton were an important energy transfer taxa to the abundant age-0 fish community in the fall, and Corixidae were important in the spring.  相似文献
Abstract – The trophic ecology of many fish species in cold temperate lakes is often characterized by a generalist or opportunist strategy. In this study, the diets of polytrophic brown trout in Loch Ness, Scotland, have been examined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to complement gut content analyses and aging by otolith annuli counts. Using the stable isotope ratios, it was possible to trace trout ontogeny from parr development in a natal river to piscivory in the pelagic. Potential dilution of maternal isotope signatures from eggs to parr was also demonstrated. Despite the low productivity of the loch, intraspecific variability in isotope ratios suggested dietary specialization, rather than opportunism, in some individuals.  相似文献
ABSTRACT:   Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in the baleen plates of 17 common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata from the north-western Pacific Ocean off Japan, as well as prey species (krill Euphausia pacifica , Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and Pacific saury Cololabis saira ) collected in the stomach contents, to investigate the trophic relationship between the minke whales and their prey. A few δ15N-depleted peaks occurred along the length of baleen plates for 10 males irrespective of stomach content (anchovies and sauries). Similar δ15N-depleted peaks were also found for one female and two immature individuals. It was likely that these δ15N-depleted peaks formed in early summer. The stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) values in Pacific saury (9.3 ± 1.4‰) did not differ significantly from that in Japanese anchovy (8.8 ± 0.9‰). In contrast, δ15N in krill (7.2 ± 0.5‰ in July and 8.0 ± 0.2‰ in September) were significantly lower than in the Pacific saury. Thus, these peaks may reflect the dietary change from krill to fishes in the feeding migration of the whales. Growth rate of the baleen plate was estimated to be 129 mm/y, and it appeared that a dietary record of about 1.4 years remained in the baleen plate. For two immature whales, the maximum value of δ15N occurred at the tip of baleen. This δ15N enrichment may possibly be useful for discriminating weanlings and older whales.  相似文献
Abstract –  Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen ( δ 13C and δ 15N) were examined in wild and aquaculture origin Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar , to evaluate their utility to identify escaped farmed fish. Samples of muscle tissue obtained from wild Conne River, Newfoundland, salmon were significantly more enriched in nitrogen ( δ 15N: mean = 12.75; SD ± 0.38‰) but depleted in lipid corrected carbon ( δ 13C': mean = −20.51; SD ± 0.23‰) by comparison with aquaculture specimens obtained from Bay d'Espoir, Newfoundland ( δ 15N = 10.96 ± 0.19‰;  δ 13C' = −19.25 ± 0.17‰) resulting in a complete separation of the two groups. Aquaculture specimens differed in δ 13C' from analyses of commercial salmon diet by 0.24‰, within the enrichment range associated with trophic transfers, while the δ 15N values in salmon muscle were enriched by 5.01‰. Although differences occurred in direct comparisons of white muscle and adipose tissue ( N  = 49), the average δ 13C' and δ 15N signatures varied in absolute amounts by only 0.5‰, supporting the use of adipose tissue as a nonlethal means to determine isotopic signatures of Atlantic salmon.  相似文献
基于稳定同位素方法的珊瑚礁鱼类营养层次研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以珊瑚礁生态系统中的鱼类作为研究对象,对2006年9月至2007年8月期间在徐闻珊瑚礁海区采集到的鱼类样本分类鉴定后,运用稳定碳氮同位素方法进行鱼类营养层次的分析。结果表明,δ13C值和δ15N值的跨度都很大,δ13C值的范围为–20.98‰~–9.05‰,相差11.93‰;δ15N值的范围为11.66‰~18.15‰,差值达6.49‰。与其他海区相比,δ13C值和δ15N值显得更为富集。由δ15N值计算出来的营养层次表明,徐闻珊瑚礁鱼类分布在两端(杂食性鱼类与高级肉食性鱼类)的只占少数,绝大多数居于中间的层次(低级肉食性鱼类与中级肉食性鱼类)。在134种鱼类中,种类数最多的是以条尾鲱鲤、少鳞代表的低级肉食性鱼类,有70种,占鱼类总数的52%;其次是以细鳞鯻、龙头鱼为代表的中级肉食性鱼类,有47种,占鱼类总数的35%;鰶以斑、前鳞骨鲻为代表的杂食性鱼类和以宽尾斜齿鲨、杂食豆齿鳗为代表的高级肉食性鱼类各有11种、6种,分别占鱼类总种类数的8%和5%。在此基础上选取54种鱼类进行稳定同位素方法与胃含物法分析结果对比,发现约85%的鱼种采用两种方法测定的结果在0.5个营养级的误差范围内一致,只有少数鱼种的差值大于0.5个营养级。由此可见稳定同位素分析法与传统的胃含物分析法所得的结果有很好的一致性,稳定同位素分析法是一种研究海洋食物网营养层次的有效方法。  相似文献
硝氮(NO3--N)和氨氮(NH4+-N)是水体中无机氮的主要形态。利用15N稳定同位素技术研究了斜生栅藻(Scendesmus obliquus)对NO3--N和NH4+-N的吸收特征。结果显示,在相同浓度条件下,斜生栅藻对NH4+-N的吸收速率显著高于对NO3--N的吸收率,在180min的试验中,对15NH4+-N的吸收速率为0.62~1.15μmol/(g·min);对15NO3--N的吸收速率为0.08~0.15μmol/(g·min)。在NO3--N和NH4+-N2种形态氮源同时存在的混合组中,斜生栅藻对NO3--N的吸收速率[0.12~1.00μmol/(g·min)]显著低于NO3--N作为唯一氮源的单一组[0.78~1.23μmol/(g·min)],表明NH4+-N的存在对藻类吸收NO3--N有抑制作用。在14NO3--N和15NO3--N同时存在时,斜生栅藻优先吸收14NO3--N,产生同位素分馏效应,但不同形态氮对藻类氮吸收的影响远远大于同位素的影响。  相似文献
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