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Abstract –  The spawning period of brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) was studied in the river Castril, southern Spain, by means of redd counts. This mountain stream is located near to the southern limit of the species' natural distribution range and it shows a highly unpredictable flow regime. The spawning period extended from December to mid-April and the maximum reproductive activity was in February. These results represent the latest reproduction date and the longest spawning period reported in the literature along the natural distribution range of the species. However, belated spawning in the Castril is congruent with the known latitudinal cline: the lower the latitude, the later the spawning period. Our results, along with a review of the literature on natural populations, also showed that the duration of reproduction is the longer, the lower the latitude. Spawning lasted twice as long in the main stem of the river, which is connected with a reservoir, than in the isolated reaches. These differences may be linked to the influence of the reservoir and to habitat fragmentation. We discuss and support the hypothesis that a long spawning period is an advantage for survival in unpredictable habitats. The belated and protracted spawning period found in river Castril has important implications in fisheries management. A strong research effort is needed in order to fill the critical lack of data on southern brown trout populations.  相似文献
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在调查了2005、2006年黄海北部大连海域虾夷扇贝的繁殖期、浮游幼虫的时空分布的基础上,对虾夷扇贝海区天然采苗进行了研究。结果表明,2005、2006年该区域的獐子岛海域、大长山岛海域、广鹿岛海域养殖的虾夷扇贝的繁殖期在4月初至5月上旬,盛期在4月15~25日。4月上旬至6月中旬,在此区域均可发现大量的虾夷扇贝浮游面盘幼虫,不同区域浮游幼虫密度变化很大。5月底至6月初是面盘幼虫集中的附着变态时期,在海区投放附着袋可进行虾夷扇贝天然苗的采集。从各海区虾夷扇贝浮游幼虫的拖网调查和采苗结果看,在虾夷扇贝主要养殖区獐子岛、大长山岛海域和广鹿岛海域,浮游幼虫在浮游的初始阶段能够形成较高的密度,但在附着阶段密度极低,不能采集到大量苗种,但在远离虾夷扇贝养殖区的大李家湾和凌水湾,浮游幼虫的出现比养殖区晚,在幼虫附着期能达到较高密度。能够采集到大量天然苗种。2005年在凌水湾的采苗数量达526±131个/袋(壳长0.6~1 mm),2006年在大李家湾的采苗数量达673±200个/袋(壳长0.6~1mm)。  相似文献
3.
The effect of photoperiod and temperature on the timing and the quality of spawning, and on associated endocrine changes in circulating 17β-oestradiol, 11-ketotestoserone (11-KT) and vitellogenin (Vtg) were investigated in common dentex, Dentex dentex, undergoing their second reproductive cycle. The possibility was also explored of using the measurement of steroids in the culture water of broodstock tanks, rather than in individual blood plasma samples, as a potentially useful tool for assessing the physiological state of a fish without disturbing them. One group of fish was exposed to a simulated natural seasonal cycle and ambient temperature (CONTROL). The other two groups were exposed to simulated seasonal photoperiod cycles (12 month-long) but which were phase-shifted either three months before (ADVANCED) or after (DELAYED) the natural cycle. Temperature was kept at 19.4±0.9 °C all-year-round. In the CONTROL, spawning started in mid-April and lasted until mid-June, while in the ADVANCED group, spawning started 4 months earlier and in the DELAYED group 2 months later than the CONTROL. The total egg production, egg quality, hatching rate, relative fecundity, and spawning index of the experimental groups were similar to the controls. The differences in spawning time induced by photothermal manipulation were associated with a difference in the timing of peak concentrations of plasma E2, 11-KT and Vtg. In all three groups, the amounts of conjugated 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) and free and sulfated 11-KT which could be extracted from the water during the spawning period were significantly higher than those found in the preovulatory period. However, the differences were mostly less than 2-fold suggesting that, at least under the conditions employed in this study, the method was of limited use for non-intrusive detection of gonadogenesis and spawning (as had been hoped). The observed differences in spawning time and in the seasonal changes of sex steroids and Vtg confirm and extend the findings on marine fish. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
4.
The gonadal development and gametogenic cycle of transplanted-cultured pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii, were investigated using individuals collected monthly from Tong-Young along the south coast of Korea from October 2000 to September 2001. The result of monthly change of condition index was similar to tissue weight rate. The highest value was observed in June and the lowest value was observed in November. The gonad of the pearl oyster was located around the digestive diverticula. The ripe testis was milky white while the ovary was light brown. The spawning period of the pearl oyster extended from April to August, with a peak between June and July. The gametogenic cycle could be classified into five successive stages: multiplicative stage (November to February), growing stage (January to March), mature stage (March and April), spawning stage (April to August) and resting stage (September to November).  相似文献
5.
The annual reproductive cycle of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria spinifera was studied in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India, from September 2000 to October 2001, by macroscopic and microscopic examination of gonad tubule, gonad index and histology of gametogenic stages, to determine the spawning pattern. The gonad consists of long tubules with uniform development. It does not confirm the progressive tubule recruitment model described for other holothurians. The maximum percentage of mature animals, gonad and fecundity indices, tubule length and diameter, with the observations on gonad histology, ascertained that H. spinifera had the peak gametogenic activity during September and October 2001 followed by a prolonged spawning period from November 2000–March 2001.  相似文献
6.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive cycle, morphological changes of ovary and mobilization of energy reserves in Nile tilapia reared with biofloc technology (BFT). In general, the growth and reproductive performance were highly similar between BFT and Control system (clear water). Difference between the systems was found in the hepatosomatic index (using mixed‐effects models), which suggested that BFT can alter the energy mobilization in the post‐spawning period. The absolute and relative fecundity, fertilization rate, number of larvae produced per female, gonadosomatic index, proportion of oogenesis cells, number of post‐ovulatory and atretic follicles were similar between the two systems. We also did not detect a reduction in the reproductive cycle length in Nile tilapia reared in BFT. Because there was no evidence of the negative effects of BFT on Nile tilapia reproduction, we concluded that BFT might be used for breeder stocking of this species.  相似文献
7.
The spawning grounds of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and spotted mackerel (Scomber australasicus) in the East China Sea were estimated based on catch statistics of the Japanese large- and medium-type purse seine fishery from 1992 to 2006. Biometric data were obtained from specimens caught by purse seiners in the East China Sea from 1998 to 2006. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) at 50% sexual maturity of chub mackerel and spotted mackerel females was 2.5 and 2.6, respectively. Using this criterion for GSI, chub mackerel larger than 275 mm and spotted mackerel larger than 310 mm in fork length were considered to be mature. Mature chub mackerel was observed in the area of 15–22°C sea surface temperature (SST), and mature spotted mackerel was observed in the area of 17–25°C SST. The spawning period of chub mackerel ranged from February to June, and that of spotted mackerel ranged from February to May in the East China Sea. The spawning grounds were estimated from the distributions of catch per unit effort (CPUE) of spawners and SST. As a result, the spawning ground of chub mackerel was estimated to be in the central and southern part of the East China Sea and the area west of Kyushu in February, March, and April, and in the central part of the East China Sea, the area west of Kyushu and Tsushima Straight in May, and in Tsushima Straight and western part of the Sea of Japan in June. The spawning ground of spotted mackerel was estimated to be in the central and southern part of the East China Sea and southern coastal area of Kyushu in February, March, and April, and the central and southern part of the East China Sea and the area west of Kyushu in May.  相似文献
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