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1.
饲料蛋白质和脂肪水平对牛蛙生长性能的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
皇康康  张春晓  王玲  宋凯  黄飞 《水产学报》2014,38(6):877-887
为研究饲料中不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对牛蛙生长、体组成和肝脏健康的影响,以红鱼粉、豆粕和酪蛋白为蛋白源,鱼油和豆油为主要脂肪源,α-淀粉为主要糖源,微晶纤维素为填充剂,并补充无机盐和维生素等配制实验饲料。实验设3个蛋白水平(35%、40%和45%),每个蛋白水平下设4个脂肪水平(4%、7%、10%和13%),共12种饲料,饲料可利用能变化范围为12.4~17.8 kJ/g,蛋白能量比变化范围为21.9~32.0 mg/kJ。每种饲料设置3个重复,每个水族缸放养12只牛蛙[初始平均体质量为(91.5±1.1)g],每日饱食投喂 2次,实验周期56 d。结果发现,饲料蛋白质和脂肪水平对牛蛙的存活率无显著影响,而13%脂肪组的牛蛙肝脏出现颜色不均一和肝体脆化无韧性的现象。饲料蛋白质和脂肪水平显著影响牛蛙的增重率、特定生长率、摄食率、饲料效率和蛋白质效率。其中,40%蛋白组牛蛙的增重率和特定生长率显著高于35%蛋白组,与45%蛋白组无显著差异。随着蛋白质水平的升高,饲料效率显著升高,而摄食率和蛋白质效率显著降低。随着脂肪水平的升高,增重率、特定生长率和摄食率显著升高,饲料效率、蛋白质效率和氮保留率无显著差异。饲料脂肪水平与牛蛙全体的脂肪含量和总能水平正相关,但不影响牛蛙全体的蛋白质含量。随着饲料脂肪水平的升高,牛蛙肝脏丙二醛含量显著升高,过氧化氢酶和脂蛋白酯酶活力先升高后降低。研究表明,牛蛙饲料适宜的蛋白质和脂肪水平分别为40%和7%,适宜蛋白能量比为27.7 mg/kJ。  相似文献
2.
试验将144只(初始质量75.01 g ±4.23 g)牛蛙( Rana catesbeiana)随机分在12个玻璃水族缸中,每组3个重复,每个重复12只牛蛙。分别向每千克基础饲料中添加0、100、200和300 mg胆汁酸,配制成4种等氮等能的试验饲料。试验期8周。结果表明:1)饲料中添加100 mg/kg的胆汁酸显著降低肝脏粗脂肪含量,升高水分含量。2)随着胆汁酸添加量的增加,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)呈先升高后降低的趋势,添加量为200 mg/kg时最高;添加胆汁酸显著提高了谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH -Px )活力;添加200 mg/kg 的胆汁酸显著降低了丙二醛(MDA)含量,当添加量为300 mg/kg, MDA显著升高。3)肝脏谷草转氨酶随着胆汁酸含量的升高呈先升高后降低趋势,其中添加量200 mg/kg时最高,各添加水平对谷丙转氨酶活力无显著影响;添加100和200 mg/kg胆汁酸显著降低肝酯酶(HL)和脂蛋白酯酶(LPL)活力。4)饲料中添加300 mg/kg的胆汁酸组牛蛙肝脏颜色呈紫黑色,有白斑,肝脏质地硬。综上,饲料中添加适量的胆汁酸能通过调节牛蛙肝脏脂类代谢水平和抗氧化能力以维持肝细胞的正常功能,建议胆汁酸添加量以不超过200 mg/kg为宜。  相似文献
3.
从患病牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)肝脏、四肢、腹水等组织划线分离,共获得3株菌,通过对菌落形态观察、革兰氏染色镜检及生理生化鉴定,确认其理化性质一致,均为洛菲不动杆菌(Acinetobacter lwoffi)。采取腹部注射和浸泡两种不同方式人工感染试验均证实该菌存在致病性,药敏试验表明,分离菌株W2011-01对左氟沙星、美洛培南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、妥布霉素、复方新诺明、庆大霉素等18种药物敏感,对呋喃妥因、环丙沙星、沙拉沙星、乙酰螺旋霉素、青霉素、杆菌肽、痢特灵、利福平、氨苄西林、强力霉素耐药。  相似文献
4.
淡水石斑鱼和美国豹纹牛蛙蝌蚪对 Zn~(2+)的富集倍数随锌浓度增加而降低,各组织器官对锌富集能力的大小顺序为:内脏>鳃>去内脏体。Zn~(2+)对两者的半致死浓度(mg/l)分别为:24h:165.00与130.00,48h:150.00与110.00,96h:77.98与70.00mg/l,安全浓度分别为0.78与0.70mg/1.  相似文献
5.
Yuki  HAMADA  Yuji  NAGASHIMA  Kazuo  SHIOMI 《Fisheries Science》2004,70(6):1137-1143
ABSTRACT:   Parvalbumin, a calcium-binding sarcoplasmic protein of approximately 12 kDa, represents the cross-reactive, major allergen in fish. In consideration of the fact that parvalbumin is contained at high levels not only in fish muscle but also in frog muscle, the present study was undertaken to clarify whether fish-allergic patients react to two parvalbumins (α- and β-parvalbumins) purified from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana , which is sometimes consumed as a delicacy in Japan. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), sera from 12 of the 14 patients tested reacted equally to both parvalbumins purified from the Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus and the bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus . Of the 12 sera positive to fish parvalbumins, eight sera also reacted to α- and β-parvalbumins of the bullfrog with different spectra: one serum reacted strongly to α-parvalbumin, six sera reacted strongly to β-parvalbumin and one serum reacted equally to both α- and β-parvalbumins. In addition, inhibition ELISA experiments revealed cross-reactivity between fish and bullfrog parvalbumins. Based on these results, it is proposed that fish-allergic patients should avoid the consumption of frog meat unless they are accurately diagnosed as lacking immunoglobulin E against frog.  相似文献
6.
7.
This work addresses the selection of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to be used in raniculture. Thus, strains belonging to the genera Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from a Rana catesbeiana hatchery were evaluated for their inhibitory properties against RLS-associated pathogens ( Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis ) and food-borne bacteria. Cell-free supernatants of LAB strains inhibited the growth of at least one of the pathogens by organic acids, but L. lactis CRL 1584 also produced a bacteriocin-like metabolite. The ability of LAB strains to produce H2O2 in MRS+TMB medium was also studied. Seventy-eight to ninety six per cent of the strains showed some level of H2O2 production. Moreover, different organic solvents were used to determine the hydrophobicity and Lewis acid/base characteristic of LAB strain surfaces. Most of the strains presented hydrophilic properties, but no acidic or basic surface characters. However, some strains isolated from the skin showed a high degree of hydrophobicity and basic components in the cell surface due to their adhesion to chloroform. These properties were not observed in LAB from balanced feed and freshwater. Taking into account general guidelines and the beneficial properties studied, five strains were selected as potential candidates to be included in a probiotic for raniculture.  相似文献
8.
用1×107 mL-1的嗜水气单胞菌腹腔注射感染牛蛙,注射后7 d内试验组牛蛙血清抗菌活性都高于对照组,其中在3 d、7 d时存在显著性差异,峰值出现在感染后第3天。收集第2批人工感染后3 d时牛蛙的血清。该血清经Sephadex G25凝胶柱分离后,并在波长280 nm处测定紫外吸收值,得到两个吸收峰。以嗜水气单胞菌检测分离物的抗菌活性,结果表明经诱导的血清抗菌物质主要集中在第1个吸收峰。通过对金黄色葡萄球菌等10株指示菌抗菌谱的测定,其对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌等具有明显的抗菌作用;SDSPAGE分析显示抗菌蛋白分子量较大。结果说明:牛蛙被嗜水气单胞菌感染后能很快产生多种抗菌物质,主要的抗菌物质是分子量比较大的物质,这些抗菌物质对部分革兰氏阴性菌和革兰氏阳性菌有抗菌作用。图3表1参24 关键词:牛蛙;嗜水气单胞菌;抗菌蛋白;抗菌活性  相似文献
9.
Rana catesbeiana is one of the delicacies of international gastronomy. Farming operations often lead to an increased risk of diseases and mortality. The present work addresses microbiological and histological studies in R. catesbeiana with red-leg syndrome (RLS), infection that causes significant economic losses in hatcheries. Partial phenotypical identification demonstrated that the microbial populations isolated from the skin of fattening phase animals and freshwater samples during the autumn (June) are grouped into the following taxa: Lactobacillus spp, Pediococcus spp, Micrococcus spp, Enterococcus faecalis, Ent. faecium and Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter spp and Proteus vulgaris). Microbial infection on target organs (liver/spleen) and blood showed the presence of Pr. vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus strains. Histological studies of skin ulcerations showed epithelial necrosis, diskeratosis, apoptosis and espongiosis. No sporangia associated with chitridiomycosis were observed. The dermis presented oedema, dilated vascular light, fibrin-leucocytic exudates and distortion of serous and granular glands. The liver showed centrolobullar necrosis and a decrease in melanin containing cells. The spleen presented wide areas of septic infarct.This paper reports the presence of lactic acid bacteria and other genera in the skin and freshwater from farmed R. catesbeiana during the autumn and a correlation between microbial infection and structural changes in tissues of bullfrogs with RLS. The severity of the structural changes is related to the level of microbial infection in the target organs and could be sustained by the isolation of Pr. vulgaris and other pathogens.  相似文献
10.
何福林  陈才 《水产科学》2006,25(3):140-142
选择环境安静,水质清新,水面开阔的库湾设置网箱(2 a=10 mm)养殖牛蛙,放养体重50~100 g的牛蛙160~200只/m2,100 g以上的牛蛙80~100只/m2,探索解决牛蛙常规养殖存在的污染环境和疾病严重等问题。结果表明:牛蛙的成活率为94.3%,日均增重1.33~2.97 g,网箱新增产值178元/m2,显著高于牛蛙常规养殖和鱼塘网箱养殖效益,为牛蛙养殖和综合提高水体养殖效益提供新的发展途径。  相似文献
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