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1.
牙鲆养殖循环系统中固体废物的粒径分布与沉降特征   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
沉淀槽是收集系统中固体废物的最简单装置,其设计参数与其沉淀的颗粒物特性有关。通过研究牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)养殖循环系统产生固体废物的粒径分布和沉降特征,得到了牙鲆养殖固体废物去除的沉淀槽设计参数——溢流率与颗粒物去除效率间的关系,可作为设计沉淀槽时参考。结果表明:系统产生固体废物量为0.13-0.27 kg TSS/kg饲料,平均为(0.22±0.06)kg TSS/kg饲料。沉淀槽中固体废物主要为粒径〈200μm的颗粒,占51.5%,其粒径分布符合双曲线型分布。在给定溢流率的情况下,沉淀槽的固体废物理论去除效率可采用颗粒物的沉降曲线估算。溢流率为1/16 m3/(m2.s)时计算的颗粒物理论去除效率为81%。  相似文献
2.
半滑舌鳎的循环水养殖模式及经济效益分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
2009年3月至10月进行了半滑舌鳎(Cynoglossuss semilaevis Guanther)生产性养殖试验,期间对一套循环水养殖系统的水处理效果及半滑舌鳎养殖模式进行了深入的研究。养殖水体经系统处理后,养殖池内水温18~21℃,pH 7.0~8.0,DO≥6.6 mg/L,养殖池进水氨氮0.017~0.178 mg/L,亚硝酸氮0.012~0.064mg/L。文中详细阐述了放苗前养殖车间消毒、苗种选择与运输、生物滤池的培养、苗种投放、养殖过程中系统的日常维护、饵料投喂、光照控制、水质因子控制等内容,并对养殖半滑舌鳎8个月的经济效益进行了分析。以期为国内工厂化循环水养殖半滑舌鳎提供技术支持和经济效益分析方面的参考。  相似文献
3.
循环海水养殖系统硝化滤器中氨氧化微生物分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
研究循环水养殖硝化滤器载体上附着生物膜的微生物群落结构可以为提高其处理速率和效率,并为特异性工程菌构建提供依据。采用改良的AFLP方法分析了循环水养殖硝化滤器载体上附着的氨氧化细菌16S rRNA基因和氨单加氧酶amoA基因片段及其系统发育情况。结果表明:分析16S rRNA基因得到的序列片段比分析amoA基因片段得到了更多信息,准确度较高,可作为分析循环水养殖硝化滤器氨氧化菌群组成的有效方法。克隆测序所得序列与网上公布数据比对,可见存在于循环水养殖硝化滤器载体上的氨氧化细菌与Nitrosomonas cryotolerans、Nitrosomonas oligotropha、Nitrosospira tenuis、Nitrosomonas marina相似度达100%,与Nitrosomonas aestuarii相似度为87%。大部分属于亚硝化单胞菌属(Nitrosomonas),仅少数序列属于亚硝化螺菌属(Nitrosospira)。采用16S rRNA基因和amoA片段分析方法得到的附着于封闭循环海水养殖硝化滤器载体上的氨氧化细菌主要为变形菌(Proteobacteria)的β-亚类的亚硝化单胞菌属(Nitrosomonas)和少量的亚硝化螺菌属(Nitrosospira)氨氧化细菌,以及一定数量的γ-亚类氨氧化细菌。  相似文献
4.
Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are semi-volatile terpenoid compounds produced as secondary metabolites by benthic and planktonic cyanobacteria, several genera of fungi, and various actinomycetes. These off-flavor compounds pose a heavy economic burden in the aquaculture industry rendering fish unmarketable unless purified by purging with large quantities of clean water. In the present study, the presence of off-flavor compounds was examined in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for tilapia culture. In this zero-discharge system, where water from the fish basins is recirculated through parallel aerobic (drum filter and a trickling filter) and anaerobic treatment loops (sedimentation/digestion basin), concentrations of geosmin and, in particular, MIB were highest in the aerobic treatment loop. Lowest concentrations were detected in the anaerobic treatment loop. This latter finding pointed toward a possible reduction of these compounds in this basin. Two bacterial strains of the streptomycetes family were isolated from the aerobic, organic-rich, drum filter and the nitrifying trickling filter. In vitro tests with these isolates, closely related to Streptomyces roseoflavus and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus, revealed that MIB production exceeded geosmin production under all conditions tested and was significantly higher under aerobic than under anoxic conditions. Under the latter conditions, with nitrate as an electron donor, the S. roseoflavus-like isolate was capable of denitrification. Based on the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that aerobic, organic-rich conditions stimulate the growth of actinomycetes and subsequent production of geosmin and MIB in the system. The observed reduction of these compounds in the anaerobic water treatment component may serve in designing treatment steps aimed at alleviating the problem of geosmin and MIB accumulation in recirculating systems.  相似文献
5.
Refreshment (make-up) water is used in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) mainly to purge off-flavors, to add alkalinity and sometimes for temperature control. Alternatively, alkalinity may be added by means of a chemical base and heat may be supplied by a heating system. The objective of this study is to show how the optimal (minimizing cost) mix of the three controls: water, base and heat, can be found for given temperatures and water prices.The optimal solution varies over the temperature space and also depends on the price of water. For conditions at Eilat, Israel (on the Red Sea), using supplementary heating to maintain a constant temperature may become prohibitively expensive. If heating is given up, the remaining choice is between the supply of alkalinity via the refreshment water and adding a base. The supply of alkalinity with the water requires 2.0 m3[water]/kg[feed], much more than the minimum refreshment rate required to purge off-flavors, which is thought to be 0.3 m3[water]/kg[feed]. If the price of water is more than 0.03 USD/m3, the use of sodium bicarbonate for alkalinity control is justified.  相似文献
6.
The aim of this study was to develop a simulation model for finding the optimal layout and management regime for a re-circulating aquaculture system (RAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth and management practices on production; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model for the RAS, taking into account all factors that directly influence system profitability; and (3) estimating the production costs and, hence, the profitability of an RAS. The resulting model is process-oriented, following the flow of fish through the RAS facility, and generates an animated graphic representation of the processes through which the fish passes as it progress through the system. The simulation assesses the performance in terms of yearly turnover, stocking density, tank utilization and biomass in process, and uses statistics to track the state of the RAS and record changes that affect efficiency. The economic impact of system design and operation was modeled to enable a user to anticipate how changes in design or operating practices, costs of inputs, or price of products affect system profitability. The proposed approach overcomes difficulties in characterizing RAS design and operation. The simulation approach allows all of the RAS's components such as equipment, biological processes (e.g., fish growth), and management practices to be evaluated jointly, so that an initial design can be fine-tuned to produce an optimized system and management regime suited to a specific fish farm within a reasonable time. The methodology was executed step-by-step to design an optimal RAS that meets both economic and stocking-density limits. Optimal design specifications were presented for several case studies based on data from Kibbutz Sde Eliahu's RAS, in which Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are raised in 20 concrete raceways. Further research should include more extensive testing and validation of the integrated model, which then should be disseminated to the aquaculture community.  相似文献
7.
Three different commercially available structural plastic media were evaluated in triplicate in moving bed biofilters under low salinity (11–12 ppt) warm water culture conditions and two different feed loading rates. The culture system consisted of nine separate modules that include a double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter. The biofilters were filled with 0.11 m3 of one of three different types of floating plastic structured media. The three types of media evaluated were K1 kaldnes media, MB3 media, and AMB media. Volumetric total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal rates (g TAN removed/m3 media-day), TAN removal efficiency, and biofilm kinetic constants, Ki (h−1) were determined for the three media types at two different daily feed load rates of 3.5 and 8.2 kg feed/m3 media. The feed provided was a 4.8 mm slow sinking marine grower diet pellet (45% protein, 17% fat). Average (±standard deviation, SD) volumetric TAN removal rates (VTR) at the lower feed load for the three media types were 92.2 ± 26.3, 86.1 ± 27.5, and 82.5 ± 25.9 for the MB3, AMB, and K1 kaldnes media, respectively. At the higher feed load the average VTR for the three media types was 186.4 ± 53.7, 172.9 ± 47.8, and 139.9 ± 38.9 for the MB3, AMB, and K1 kaldnes media, respectively. Influent TAN concentrations varied by the feed load rate and ranged from 0.55 to 0.93 mg/L and 0.83 to 1.87 mg/L for the low and higher feed loads, respectively. The percent TAN removal rates for the MB3 media was the highest of the three media types at both the low and high feed load rates averaging 12.3% and 14.4%, respectively. The MB3 media was selected for use in the moving bed biofilters because of the greater VTR and removal efficiency results for use in the 0.11 m3 moving bed biofilters of the hatchery recirculating aquaculture system.  相似文献
8.
工厂化循环水养殖系统得到越来越广的应用,去除水体中有机物的重要性逐渐得到人们的重视,但去除有机物的主要设备———泡沫分离器在技术应用上还不成熟,本文通过实验逐步改变充气量、水流量、有机物浓度、分离器高度等影响因素,以确定这些影响因素对泡沫分离器有机物去除效率的影响,研究结果表明:(1)由于气流紊动的影响存在最佳气液比,本实验中气液比为6时有机物去除率最大。(2)有机物浓度是影响有机物去除效率的主要因素,本实验中当有机物浓度在4.32mg/l时去除率明显增大。(3)分离器高度对去除率的影响是随着有机物浓度等因素的变化而不同。  相似文献
9.
Three different commercially available structural plastic media were evaluated in triplicate in moving bed biofilters under low salinity (11–12 ppt) warm water culture conditions and two different feed loading rates. The culture system consisted of nine separate modules that include a double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter. The biofilters were filled with 0.11 m3 of one of three different types of floating plastic structured media. The three types of media evaluated were K1 kaldnes media, MB3 media, and AMB media. Volumetric total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal rates (g TAN removed/m3 media-day), TAN removal efficiency, and biofilm kinetic constants, Ki (h−1) were determined for the three media types at two different daily feed load rates of 3.5 and 8.2 kg feed/m3 media. The feed provided was a 4.8 mm slow sinking marine grower diet pellet (45% protein, 17% fat). Average (±standard deviation, SD) volumetric TAN removal rates (VTR) at the lower feed load for the three media types were 92.2 ± 26.3, 86.1 ± 27.5, and 82.5 ± 25.9 for the MB3, AMB, and K1 kaldnes media, respectively. At the higher feed load the average VTR for the three media types was 186.4 ± 53.7, 172.9 ± 47.8, and 139.9 ± 38.9 for the MB3, AMB, and K1 kaldnes media, respectively. Influent TAN concentrations varied by the feed load rate and ranged from 0.55 to 0.93 mg/L and 0.83 to 1.87 mg/L for the low and higher feed loads, respectively. The percent TAN removal rates for the MB3 media was the highest of the three media types at both the low and high feed load rates averaging 12.3% and 14.4%, respectively. The MB3 media was selected for use in the moving bed biofilters because of the greater VTR and removal efficiency results for use in the 0.11 m3 moving bed biofilters of the hatchery recirculating aquaculture system.  相似文献
10.
循环水养殖系统的关键技术是养殖废水的处理和再利用。作为循环水养殖系统水处理的核心单元,生物膜对于养殖水体中污染物的去除起着至关重要的作用。水温、盐度、pH和溶氧等环境因子都会影响生物膜的功能,环境因子的突然变化会引起生物膜脱落、影响循环水养殖系统生物膜的形成过程及运行效果。控制好水温、盐度、pH和溶氧,生物膜净化效率就能达到较为理想的状态,养殖废水的处理效果就会更好。因此,有必要研究各个环境因子变量条件下的养殖废水去除动力学特征,以期为循环水养殖系统优化设计与运行管理提供理论依据。  相似文献
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