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1.
A relatively new and highly valuable aquaculture industry focuses on three species of bluefin tunas, which are captured from the wild and fattened for several months in sea cages. In teleost aquaculture, mortalities and extra production costs are very commonly associated with metazoan ectoparasites. In tuna, however, the production value lost due to diseases associated with ectoparasites is unknown. We collected epidemiological data on burdens of metazoans on the gills of farmed southern bluefin, Thunnus maccoyii, in a series of monthly samples of tuna from the time of stocking through to harvest (March to August, 2004; N = 210) in five sea cages on a farm off Port Lincoln, Australia. Three species were recorded; for one (a copepod, Pseudocycnus appendiculatus), there was a gradual, significant increase in both abundance (from a mean of 0.1 in March, to 3.83 in August) and prevalence (from 10% to 67.5%). For the other two species (a second copepod, Euryphorus brachypterus, and a polyopisthocotylean flatworm, Hexostoma thynni) there were no discernible trends in prevalences and abundances. These results contrast markedly with those of other intensively cultured species of finfishes, in which parasite epizootics are frequent. This finding may indicate that despite the stresses of captivity, tuna mount a robust immune response to ectoparasites; the relatively low stocking densities at which tuna are farmed may facilitate this. The fall in water temperature during farming (22 °C to 13 °C) may also reduce the reproductive rate of these ectoparasites.  相似文献
2.
Farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta were monitored over 3 years for infection with the blood-feeding gill fluke Discocotyle sagittata. Parasite transmission is seasonal: new infections take place during summer/autumn, and transmission is generally negligible during winter/spring. There are 2 sources of infection for naïve fish-of-the-year: limited invasion when fish are in the raceways by riverborne larvae originating external to the farm; and internally, within the farm, when 0+ fish are transferred to ponds previously occupied by older cohorts of infected fish. Thereafter, infection levels continue to increase in rainbow trout primarily through transmission within the farm. Prevalence rose to 100% in 1+ fish by the end of their second summer. In O. mykiss, mean abundance reached 194 worms/host for 1+ fish (up to 489 worms/host) and 160 worms/host for 2+ fish. By contrast, in S. trutta, parasite prevalence never exceeded 85% and, after the first year's invasions, infection levels decreased over time: in 1+ and 2+ brown trout, parasite mean abundance was < 4 (maximum 15) worms/host. We present evidence of the detrimental effects of D. sagittata on the host: high burdens are associated with pale gills, decreased body condition and host mortality. Parasite burdens become overdispersed during the warmer part of the year, as prevalence and mean abundance increase. However, the degree of parasite overdispersion decreases over winter; we cannot distinguish whether decreased aggregation is due to parasite losses from infected fish (including immune-mediated parasite mortality) or parasite-induced host mortality.  相似文献
3.
This study deals with the influence of temperature on the hatching of eggs of Diplectanum aequans, a branchial ectoparasite of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). At temperatures of 20 °C, 25 C and 30 °C hatching takes place within a few days of laying, whereas at 15 C and 10 C it occurs respectively between the 7th and the 12th day and between the 11th and the 19th day. No hatching has been observed at 5 C. Development is not completely inhibited at 5 C as the eggs can, at least partially, go on maturing and will subsequently hatch as soon as higher temperatures are encountered.  相似文献
4.
The Western Australian dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum), an open-water marine finfish, has been identified as a potential species for aquaculture and a 4 y research project has concentrated on broodstock collection and maintenance, spawning and larval rearing. This paper describes treatments which were developed for the ectoparasites and diseases of broodstock fish. These included bacterial and fungal infections, Cryptocaryon irritans, Haliotremasp., an unidentified axinid monogenean, the isopod Aega cyclops and copepod Caligus sp. Treatments based on betadine, formalin, freshwater, malachite green, oxytetracycline (terramycin), 2-phenoxyethanol, potassium permanganate and trichlorphon (neguvon) were all tried. The most effective treatments against parasites were a freshwater bath or a combined freshwater bath and anaesthesia with 2-phenoxyethanol. Monogeneans on the gills were difficult to control and exophthalmia was an unresolved problem.  相似文献
5.
Both laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that aqueous aluminium can act as a paraciticide to the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 infecting freshwater salmonids. However, the reproductive conditions of gyrodactylids surviving to cessation of an aluminium exposure is unknown. Therefore, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr infected with G. salaris was experimentally exposed to elevated concentrations of aqueous aluminium for more than 1 month. During this period, the infection increased the first week before it peaked and started to steadily decline approaching elimination. When almost all parasite specimens were eliminated, the water quality was adjusted to normal aluminium-poor freshwater. During the next 3 weeks, the surviving G. salaris were shown to clearly resume their reproduction. The experiment demonstrates the potential of the gyrodactylids to reproduce after cessation of an aluminium exposure. Thus, the as-yet unknown mechanism behind the toxic effects of aluminium on G. salaris survival and reproduction might to some extent be reversible. The present study gives further support for this metal as a parasiticide to G. salaris but demonstrates at the same time that in order to eliminate the parasites totally, the aluminium treatment must eradicate all G. salaris from the skin of the infected hosts. Furthermore, the potential development of resistance to aluminium should also be studied.  相似文献
6.
The effects of temperature and salinity on the embryonation period and hatching success of eggs of Benedenia seriolae were investigated. Temperature strongly influenced embryonation period; eggs first hatched 5 days after laying at 28 degrees C and 16 days after laying at 14 degrees C. The relationship between temperature and embryonation period is described by quadratic regression equations for time to first and last hatching. Hatching success was >70% for B. seriolae eggs incubated at temperatures from 14 to 28 degrees C. However, no B. seriolae eggs embryonated and hatched at 30 degrees C and <2% of eggs hatched when incubated at 24 degrees C after transfer to 30 degrees C for 48 h. Embryonation period was similar for eggs incubated in sea water at 25, 30 and 35 per thousand salinity, but increased for eggs incubated at higher or lower salinities. When incubated at salinities ranging from 25 to 45 per thousand, more than 70% of B. seriolae eggs embryonated and hatched. Hatching success was lower at 20 and 50 per thousand salinity and few or no eggs hatched at 10 and 15 per thousand. Hatching of B. seriolae eggs can be prevented by desiccation for 3 min, by immersion in water at 50 degrees C for 30 s or by treatment with 25% ethanol for 3 min.  相似文献
7.
In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of Gyrodactylus brachymystacis and Gyrodactylus parvae infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the invasive topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), respectively. The two circular genomes have a common genome organization found in other Gyrodactylus species. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes from six Gyrodactylus species were carried out to determine base composition, codon usage, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes, major non‐coding regions, and nucleotide diversity within the genus. We also provide the first universal models of the secondary structures of rrnS and rrnL for this group thereby promoting utilization of these genetic markers. Universal primers provided herein can be used to obtain more mitochondrial information for pathogen identification and may reveal different levels of molecular phylogenetic inferences for this lineage.  相似文献
8.
Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (<2 h) at allicin concentrations of 15.2 μL L−1, while eggs in the seawater control had >95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L−1), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1‐h immersion in 10 mL L−1 (15.2 μL L−1 allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin‐containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.  相似文献
9.
10.
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parr (age 1+), infected by the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957), were exposed to chlorine (Cl)‐enriched water at three different concentrations: Cllow (0–5 μg Cl L−1), Clmedium (18 μg Cl L−1) and Clhigh (50 μg Cl L−1). There was a negative correlation between G. salaris infections and the hypochlorite concentrations added. The parasite infection was eliminated by day 6–8 and day 2–4 in the groups Clmedium and Clhigh, respectively, while inhibition of G. salaris population growth was observed in the Cllow group. An important note to this matter, however, is that the G. salaris specimens observed at day 6 in Clmedium and at day 2 in Clhigh were all considered dead by subjective judgement. No mortality in the salmon parr was observed during the first 8 days of the experiment, demonstrating that Cl has a stronger effect on G. salaris than on the salmonid host. The differences in sensitivity between the parasite and the Atlantic salmon indicate that hypochlorite has a potential use as a parasiticide with a therapeutic margin. The low‐dose sensitivity may imply that Cl pollution in urban areas may pose a greater risk towards biodiversity than previously assumed.  相似文献
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