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1.
微囊藻毒素对小白鼠肝脏的毒理效应   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
以微囊藻体内提取的微囊藻毒素(MC)试液对ICR小白鼠进行腹腔注射实验,小白鼠肝脏充血、肿胀,出现死亡。通过电子显微镜对肝细胞超微结构观察,实验表明,MC试液使小白鼠肝细胞超微结构出现较大异常变化,内质网破碎,发生核糖体的脱粒现象;线粒体内部结构尤其是嵴发生变形、碎裂,出现溶解。解体的部分内质网碎片包绕在线粒体周围,细胞内容物稀疏,细胞质结构分布比较随机,规律性降低。研究结果表明,MC—LR的腹腔注射剂量为0.06mg/kg时,会使ICR小白鼠肝细胞超微结构有显著变化并出现小白鼠死亡现象。  相似文献
2.
湖南镇水库浮游生物及其影响因子的典范对应分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
2006年至2007年间调查了蓝藻(Cyanophyta)暴发水体——湖南镇水库的浮游生物群落结构及其变化,研究了其与环境参数之间的关系。调查期间,共鉴定出浮游植物96种(属),浮游动物73种(属)。单位水体浮游植物平均细胞数量变化于0.49×106~16.71×106L-1之间,浮游动物则变化于8~3548L-1之间。春、夏季螺旋鱼腥藻(Anabaena sporoides)水华持续数月,水体表层细胞密度高达2.28×108L-1,进入秋季后其优势逐渐被颤藻属(Oscillatoria)蓝藻取代。典范对应分析显示,浮游植物的季节演替规律与螺旋鱼腥藻数量、总溶解固形物(TDS)和透明度(SD)存在较高的相关性,浮游动物演替主要与溶解在水中的微囊藻(Microcystis)毒素(EMC)、营养盐和螺旋鱼腥藻数量相关。由于高水平营养盐的存在,上行效应无法有效限制蓝藻的发生,水华蓝藻以其数量优势改变了水体理化条件,成为影响浮游植物群落的潜在因素,而营养盐可能通过主导可食藻类的生长,间接影响浮游动物的动态。将水华蓝藻数量及藻毒素浓度作为环境因子进行多元分析,分别提高了对浮游植物、动物群落的解释15.6%和25.8%,说明水华蓝藻和藻毒素的存在对浮游生物群落的组成和结构具有较大的影响。  相似文献
3.
高铁酸钾对微囊藻毒素的去除效果探讨   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
研究高铁酸钾对微囊藻毒素(MC—LR)的去除效果,探讨不同反应影响因素(反应时间、K2FeO4质量浓度、温度和pH)对去除率的影响。结果表明,K2FeO4能够有效地去除水中的MC—LR。K2FeO4对MC—LR的去除率与K2FeO4。投加质量浓度、反应时间成正相关,其中K2FeO4质量浓度对去除效果的影响较为明显;反应温度对去除率的影响不显著;pH对去除率也有重要影响,当pH分别为2和10时去除率分别为94.51%和87.96%。正交试验的结果也进一步证明了不同反应影响因素对去除效果的影响显著程度。  相似文献
4.
ABSTRACT:   The amount of microcystin in Microcystis aeruginosa bloom was investigated during the rainy season of 1999 in Laguna de Bay, the Philippines. Bloom samples taken from the West Bay and East Cove stations of the lake were studied in relation to the characteristics of environmental conditions. Four types of microcystins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), microcystin-RR (MC-RR), 6(Z)-Adda-microcystin-RR, and 3-desmethylmicrocystin-LR were identified from the natural bloom samples among which MC-LR was the most dominant type of microcystin. Production of microcystin (88.6 µg/100 mg dried cells) was highest during the first sampling week that coincided with high water transparency and high conductivity. The occurrence of a strong typhoon during the second sampling week had changed the environment drastically, which was characterized by low water transparency, high turbidity, low water temperature, and with trace amounts of MC-LR detected at the East Cove station. Thus, toxin production over time as well as the relationship between Microcystis production and toxin concentration could not be fully evaluated.  相似文献
5.
Increased demand has pushed extensive aquaculture towards intensively operated production systems, commonly resulting in eutrophic conditions and cyanobacterial blooms. This review summarizes those cyanobacterial secondary metabolites that can cause undesirable tastes and odors (odorous metabolites) or are biochemically active (bioactive metabolites) in marine and freshwater, extensive and intensive aquaculture systems. For the scope of this paper, biochemically active metabolites include (1) toxins that can cause mortality in aquaculture organisms or have the potential to harm consumers via accumulation in the product (hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, neurotoxins, dermatoxins, and brine shrimp/molluskal toxins), (2) metabolites that may degrade the nutritional status of aquaculture species (inhibitors of proteases and grazer deterrents) or (3) metabolites that have the potential to negatively affect the general health of aquaculture species or aquaculture laborers (dermatoxins, irritant toxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins). Suggestions are made as to future management practices in intensive and extensive aquaculture and the potential exposure pathways to aquaculture species and human consumers are identified.  相似文献
6.
斑马鱼和鲢鱼对微囊藻毒素与孔雀石绿的行为反应   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
鱼类行为能准确地反映环境变化,并且随着污染物浓度的变化而发生改变,因此将毒素敏感鱼类的行为作为标记,用以监测环境是可行的。本研究用人工饲养,对环境毒素敏感的斑马鱼和对环境毒素有较强吸收能力的鲢鱼作为指示生物,检测其行为对水体中微囊藻毒素(MC)和孔雀石绿(MG)的反应。结果表明,斑马鱼和鲢鱼在2 µg/L MC浸泡下未出现显著的行为反应,而在5 µg/L的MC浸泡下,斑马鱼摆尾频率在10 min 后,移动速度在40 min后显著性下降;鲢鱼摆尾频率与移动速度均在40 min后显著性下降。另一方面,0.5 mg/L MG处理下,斑马鱼未出现显著性行为变化,而鲢鱼摆尾频率与移动速度均在35 min后显著性下降。  相似文献
7.
微囊藻毒素及其生殖毒性的研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
工业化、城市化的发展以及农业生产中大量化肥的使用,使自然界许多水体的污染逐渐加重,出现富营养化现象,导致藻类尤其是蓝藻的过度繁殖生长,不仅破坏了水生生态系统,而且对经济和社会发展、环境以及人类健康的影响很大[1-6]。蓝藻广泛地生长在世界各地的水体中,某些种类的蓝藻  相似文献
8.
A 12-week growth trial was conducted in a flow-through system to investigate the chronic toxic effect of dietary intake of cyanobacteria on growth, feed utilization and microcystins accumulation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) (initial body weight: 5.6 g). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to include different contents of cyanobacteria with the dietary microcystins increasing from 0 to 5460.06 ng/g diet. The results showed that dietary intake of cyanobacteria could increase the growth of tilapia while there are no impacts on feed conversion efficiency or mortality. Feeding rate was higher for the diets containing highest cyanobacteria. Microcystins were mostly accumulated in fish liver. The relationship between microcystins contents in muscle, liver, spleen and dietary intake could be described by quadratic equations.Microcystins content in the muscle of Nile tilapia in present study exceeded the upper limit of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of microcystins suggested by the WHO (0.04 μg/kg body weight/d). It is suggested that Nile tilapia fed on toxic cyanobacteria is not suitable for human food.  相似文献
9.
Jun Chen  Dawen Zhang  Zhixin Ke  Hua Yang 《Aquaculture》2006,261(3):1026-1038
The phytoplanktivorous silver carp is an important biomanipulation fish to control cyanobacterial blooms and is also a food fish with the greatest production in China. The accumulation of the hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) determined by LC-MS in various organs of silver carp was studied monthly in Lake Taihu dominated by toxic Microcystis aeruginosa. Average recoveries of spiked fish samples were 78% for MC-RR and 81% for MC-LR. The highest content of MCs was found in the intestine (97.48 μg g− 1 DW), followed by liver (6.84 μg g− 1 DW), kidney (4.88 μg g− 1 DW) and blood (1.54 μg g− 1 DW), and the annual mean MC content was in the order of intestine > liver > kidney > blood > muscle > spleen > gallbladder > gill. Silver carp could effectively ingest toxic Microcystis cells (up to 84.4% of total phytoplankton in gut contents), but showed fast growth (from 141 g to 1759 g in 1 year in mean weight). Silver carp accumulated less microcystins in liver than other animals in the same site or other fish from different water bodies at similar level of toxin ingestion. There was possible inhibition of the transportation of the most toxic MC-LR across the gutwall. Muscle of silver carp in Lake Taihu should not be consumed during period of dense Microcystis blooms while viscera were risky for consumption in more months.  相似文献
10.
Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokaryota dominated the phytoplankton assemblage in water from the affected pond, particularly Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena sp. Water samples from the affected pond also contained high levels of microcystin-LR (45 μg/l), whereas adjacent ponds had a diatom-green algal assemblage and no measurable toxin. Unialgal isolates of M. aeruginosa from the affected pond produced microcystin-LR. Free microcystin-LR concentrations in dead shrimp hepatopancreas determined by HPLC were 55 μg/g total shrimp weight, whereas shrimp hepatopancreas from the adjacent pond without shrimp mortalities had no measurable toxin. Muscle toxin concentration was below 0.1 μg/g.  相似文献
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