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1.
马氏珠母贝肉的营养成分及其游离氨基酸组成   总被引:78,自引:5,他引:73       下载免费PDF全文
章超桦 《水产学报》2000,24(2):180-184
对马氏珠母贝肉的营养成分及游离氨基酸组成进行了较系统的食品化学特性研究,结果表明:马氏珠母贝含粗蛋白74.9%(干基),蛋白质的氨基酸组成中,富含Glu(2.21%)、Asp(1.45)、Gly(1.01%)等呈味氨基酸;蛋白质营养价高,氨基酸价为82,第一限制氨基酸是含硫氨基酸(1973年(FAO/WHO标准);无机盐含量丰富,尤其是微量元素Zn和Se;游离氨基酸中,牛磺酸含量最高达1.38%,  相似文献
2.
僧帽牡蛎保鲜过程中游离氨基酸_牛磺酸的变化   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
吴成业 《水产学报》1998,22(3):253-259
探讨了僧帽牡蛎在低温贮藏保鲜过程中鲜度指标及游离氨基酸,牛磺酸等的变化。实验表明:在0-2℃及3-5℃的贮藏中挥发性盐氮呈平缓上升趋势,贮藏15天分别为15.2mg/100g和20.6mg/100g;而在6-8℃下,贮藏,挥发性盐基氮变化相对较快,15天后高达26.8mg/100g。在萃取液中,牛磺酸的含量最高,其在贮藏中略有下降,但基本上在357mg/100g-387mg/100g范围内波动;游  相似文献
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ABSTRACT:   To elucidate the utilization of the major yolk nutrient stocks in eggs and larvae of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma , the contents of free amino acids (FAA), the major yolk protein (180 kDa lipovitellin originated from vitellogenin B in ovulated eggs: oLv B), and lipids were measured. Most eggs hatched 18 days after fertilization at 5°C, and all larvae absorbed almost all their yolk mass by 28 days. The total FAA content showed no change during the first 6 days, and then decreased to 28% of the initial level by 18 days. The oLv B contents, measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a specific antiserum against oLv B, gradually decreased from 6 to 18 days, followed by a rapid decline. The content of phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) showed no marked change until hatching, and then decreased until disappearance of yolk sac. From these results, it is proposed that there are two main periods for nutrient utilization in embryos and larvae of walleye pollock. In the first period, FAA was mainly utilized until 18 days after fertilization. Active utilization of oLv B and lipids (PL and TG) instead of FAA occurred during the second period from 18 to 28 days.  相似文献
5.
Effect of salinity change on free amino acid content in Pacific oyster   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
ABSTRACT:   In order to identify free amino acids (FAA) that are importantas intracellular osmolytes in Crassostrea gigas , we investigatedthe change in FAA content in the mantle exposed to an abrupt decreaseor increase in salinity. In hypo-osmotic adaptation, most FAA showedremarkable and synchronous decreases from 2 to 8 h, suggestingthat the non-selective efflux of FAA was mainly responsible forthe decrease in FAA. Taurine that accounted for approximately 80% oftotal FAA content contributed most significantly to the hypo-osmoticadaptation. In hyper-osmotic adaptation, significant increases inglycine, alanine, β-alanine, proline, arginine and taurinewere observed. Of these, alanine showed an immediate increase thatis important to short-term adaptation to hyper-osmolality, whiletaurine showed a slower and substantial increase that contributesto a long-term adaptation to hyper-osmolality.  相似文献
6.
潮间带滩涂颗粒有机碎屑生物组成及其游离氨基酸分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
福建省福宁湾潮间带滩涂表层粉砂质粘土海泥中含有丰富的颗粒有机碎屑和粉砂颗粒。有机碎屑颗粒大小悬殊,其长径5.3~95.0μm,平均46.08±27.52μm。粉砂颗粒粒径4.0~37.0μm,平均17.18±9.63μm。具有生物群落的颗粒有机碎屑包含拟铃虫(细弱拟铃虫、圆钝拟铃虫、肿状拟铃虫、百乐拟铃虫和妥肯丁拟铃虫)、底栖硅藻(圆筛藻、斜纹藻、布纹藻、舟形藻、斑条藻、卵形藻、菱形藻和筒柱藻)和细菌(微球菌密度7.728×109个细胞/g~13.136×109个细胞/g),偶见许水蚤卵粒和海洋线虫。应用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定了颗粒有机碎屑的游离氨基酸含量,其总量为385.3~569.7μmol/kg,平均473.24±62.40μmol/kg。15种游离氨基酸中以甘氨酸、脯氨酸、丝氨酸、赖氨酸、谷氨酸和丙氨酸含量较高,其百分组成分别为16.41%、15.95%、13.32%、7.29%、6.96%和6.91%。研究结果表明,在潮间带滩涂形成了颗粒有机碎屑、细菌(微球菌)、微型硅藻、原生动物(拟铃虫)和大弹涂鱼的食物链营养关系。  相似文献
7.
The aim of the present experiment was to screen several biochemical indices in fish and their interrelations in order to select variables for future studies of growth rate and feed conversion. Several parameters [trypsin activity, chymotrypsin activity, free amino acids (FAA) in plasma and white muscle, and RNA and RNA/protein ratio in the white muscle] were measured together with specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in four groups of diploid or triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared under different light regimes. SGR was measured on individually tagged fish, whereas feed intake and feed conversion was estimated on tank basis. A principal component analysis (PCA) explained 80.6% of the variance in the data, using all measured parameters, regardless of ploidy and light regime. Muscle free hydroxyproline showed the highest correlation, alone explaining 55% of SGR variability. The SGR also significantly correlated with trypsin activity (r=0.34), the activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin (T/C) (r=0.39), plasma essential FAA (EAA) (r=0.39), plasma total FAA (TFAA) (r=0.37), the ratio of essential to non-essential FAA (EAA/NEAA) in the white muscle (r=–0.45), muscle RNA (r=–0.45) and RNA/protein ratio (r=–0.41). Tank FCE correlated positively (r=0.97) with SGR, T/C ratio and muscle free hydroxyproline, and negatively (r=–0.90) with muscle EAA/NEAA. The groups reared under continuous light (LL) regime showed significantly higher SGR than simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) groups, and with an apparently higher FCE. A higher growth rate was associated with either a higher consumption rate and/or a higher feed utilization. A negative correlation between muscle RNA concentration and SGR may indicate that increased growth rate under LL regime was not caused by an increased protein deposition rate.  相似文献
8.
SUMMARY: Seasonal variation in the level of extractive nitrogenous components was investigated in the muscle of puffer Takifugu rubripes cultured in two different areas of Taiwan. There were no seasonal and regional variations in the proximate composition of the fish. Of the free amino acids (FAA) in the muscle of puffer, the predominant one was taurine, followed by glycine, lysine, and alanine. Among nucleotide-related compounds, inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) were the most prominent compounds. The total nucleotide-related compounds in the muscle of puffer were higher in July and November than those in the other months. The level of total taste-active components including glycine, alanine, arginine, GMP, IMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphate was much higher in the muscle of puffer collected from July to January. Therefore, the puffer is probably more palatable in these periods.  相似文献
9.
对含有外源基因的转红色荧光蛋白基因唐鱼(简称:转基因唐鱼)和同胞家系中不含有外源基因唐鱼(简称:非转基因唐鱼)肌肉中的一般营养成分、游离氨基酸和脂肪酸的组成和含量进行分析和比较。结果表明:转基因唐鱼肌肉水分、粗蛋白含量和粗灰分含量高于非转基因唐鱼,粗脂肪含量低于非转基因唐鱼,但差异均不显著(P>0.05);转基因唐鱼和非转基因唐鱼肌肉游离氨基酸总量分别为262.3 mg/100 g和492mg/100 g,其中必需氨基酸分别为161.6 mg/100 g和314.8 mg/100 g,鲜味氨基酸分别为74.3 mg/100 g和127.8 mg/100 g;按照GC/MS面积归一化法检测转基因唐鱼和非转基因唐鱼肌肉脂肪酸组成及含量,均检测到28种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸分别为29.47%和31.59%,单不饱和脂肪酸分别为39.14%和42.45%,多不饱和脂肪酸分别为31.40%和25.96%。可见外源红色荧光蛋白基因插入和表达对宿主唐鱼肌肉中一般营养成分、游离氨基酸和脂肪酸组成的影响均不大。  相似文献
10.
盐度对凡纳滨对虾肌肉中游离氨基酸含量的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过逐渐升高盐度的方法,分别测定盐度为0、10、20、30和40时凡纳滨对虾肌肉中游离氨基酸(FAA)的含量,实验周期40 h。结果表明:在盐度0~40时,总游离氨基酸(TOFAA)、必需氨基酸(EAA)、非必需氨基酸(NEAA)和鲜味氨基酸(TAA)的含量都随盐度的增加而明显升高(P<0.05);特别是当盐度从20增加到30时,肌肉中TOFAA、EAA、NEAA和TAA含量的增高幅度最明显。在凡纳滨对虾肌肉FAA中,含量最高的是甘氨酸(Gly),其次是脯氨酸(Pro)、精氨酸(Arg)和丙氨酸(Ala)。在盐度为0~40范围内,肌肉中主要的渗透压调节因子是甘氨酸(Gly)、脯氨酸(Pro)、精氨酸(Arg)、丙氨酸(Ala)和牛磺酸(Tau);而天冬氨酸(Asp)、丝氨酸(Ser)、缬氨酸(Val)、甲硫氨酸(Met)、异亮氨酸(Ile)、亮氨酸(Leu)和酪氨酸(Tyr)的含量在各盐度组未呈现显著变化(P>0.05)。在淡水养殖凡纳滨对虾出售前的40 h,通过提高水体盐度来提高凡纳滨对虾肉质的鲜味是完全可行的。  相似文献
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