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1.
生物操纵法对养殖水体富营养化防治的探讨   总被引:28,自引:1,他引:27  
养殖水体的富营养化无论对海水养殖还是淡水养殖都是一个不可忽视的问题。水体富营养化防治的措施过去都集中在理化方法和工程措施。本文初步探讨了利用生物操纵的方法,即从生态系统结构和功能的调整来进行治理,并对此项技术在我国的应用前景做了可行性分析。  相似文献
2.
杭州湾富营养化及浮游植物多样性问题的探讨   总被引:23,自引:2,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
章守宇 《水产学报》2001,25(6):512-517
根据杭州湾水质监测及浮游植物的调查资料,应用营养状态指数、生物多样性和相似性指数等概念,分析了杭州湾的富营养化及浮游植物多样性等问题.研究表明,杭州湾营养状态指数由近岸向外海递减,COD、DIN和DIP在杭州湾营养状态指数的构成比例中分别占64.3%、34.6%和1.1%;浮游植物种类多样性指数自西北向东南呈递减-递增-递减的态势,其低谷区中心轴位于121°121'E、30°00'N-122°30'E、31°00'N连线(图1的A-A'线)附近;营养状态指数和浮游植物种类多样性指数的相关性好,外海侧海域因为二者呈负相关而更有可能成为赤潮发生的"危险区";杭州湾浮游植物生长环境大致可以A-A'线为界划分为近岸侧和外海侧两个区,前者生长环境比后者更为恶劣;浮游植物按其物种相似性指数可分为外海群落与近岸群落,它们的地理.分布同样可以上述连线为界.  相似文献
3.
湖库富营养化人工神经网络评价模型   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
楼文高 《水产学报》2001,25(5):474-478
在分析现有应用人工神经网络评价模型局限性的基础上,根据湖库富营养化的评价标准,提出了生成BP神经网络训练样本、检验样本和测试样本的新方法,给出了区分湖库富营养化不同程度的分界值,论述了确定合理隐层及其节点数的方法,使得训练后的神经网络模型具有更强的泛化能力,不受初始连接权值的影响。训练后的评价模型应用于实例的评价结果表明,新的评价模型具有更好的客观性、强壮性、通用性和实用性。并且由于评价结果采用连续函数输出,能够比较精细地分析湖库的富营养化程度。  相似文献
4.
浙江北部沿海富营养化的评价与分析   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
章守宇 《水产学报》2001,25(1):74-78
运用模糊集合论中的权距离要领结合隶属度的模糊评价方法,以化学耗氧量,总无机氮,活性磷酸盐和生物学参叶绿素a为指标,对浙江北部沿海的富营养化状况进行了评价,评价过程中的重 权向量通过改进的层次分析法来确定,并对评价指标重要性比较矩阵进行了不同的调整和对比分析,评价结果以隶属法和累加法两种方式给出,结果表明,浙江北沿海约76.6%的调查海域处于中营养和中富营养状态之间,低于和高于此状态扮别占16.6%和6.7%,评价指标重要度的不同排列会对最终评价结果产生影响,累加法的评价结果比隶属法更接的接近实际,富营养化程序高低与赤潮发生的相准相性尚需要进一步研究。  相似文献
5.
江蓠作为富营养化指示生物及修复生物的氮营养特性   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
近海环境的污染日趋严重,化学监测方法存在着其固有的缺陷,采用指示性生物来反映变化的水质已越来越为人们所接受.大型海藻江蓠(Gracilaria)为自养生物,易养殖,能忍受盐度、温度等环境条件相对较大的波动,是理想的研究材料;它能对环境中不同形态氮的浓度及来源,通过氨基酸组成、光合色素及组织氮含量等变化作出迅速而灵敏的响应;江蓠生长快,具有大的氮储存能力,及较高的经济价值等特性,已成为水体中营养变化的指示性生物及治理富营养化理想的修复植物.  相似文献
6.
我国赤潮频发现象分析与海藻栽培生物修复作用   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
徐姗楠 《水产学报》2006,30(4):554-561
In this paper, the history, main events and present status of red tide (HAB, harmful algal blooms) along China coast in recent years were reviewed and presented. It showed that the HAB's frequency and scale, number of HAB spec ies, percentage of toxic HAB events and the degree of damages to marine environment and economy have sharply increased in China since 1960's. Eutrophication was key factor for high occurrence of red tide. In this paper, main causes of frequent HAB occurrence along China coast was discussed. Many factors might influence the occurrence of red tide, which included weather, climate, coastal current, tidal current, water temperature, salinity, hydrodynamic and nutrient conditions, trace metals and the variation of biological environment. Numerous evidences from all over the world revealed the linkage between the increases in nutrient loading and the occurrences of high biomass blooms. Eutrophication was one of the important causes that involved in high occurrence of HAB. The main sources of nutrients potentially stimulating HABs included terrestrial runoff, aquaculture selfpollution, atmospheric deposition, sea projects and other pollution events in the ocean. Studies showed that the input from land contaminations and the selfpollution of marine aquaculture accelerated eutrophication in coastal waters and were also important impact factors on red tide. Researches suggested that nutrient composition could affect the species composition of phytoplankton as well as the development of some HABs. The changes in nutrient supply ratios, primarily N∶P, often resulted in shifts in red tide species composition. The correlation between cysts and formation of HAB was discussed from the viewpoi nt of transformation of cyst and vegetative cell, the effects of trace elements and other organic substances on the occurrence of HAB were presented also. It indicated that the nutrient control could be an effective way to reduce the risk of red tide occurrence. Seaweed would play an important role for decreasing marine eutrophication. Among the different methods of red tide controlling studied, seaweed biomass has received much attention due to the cost saving, low sensitivity to environmental and impurity factors, the possible contaminant recovery from the biomaterial and its elevated adsorption capacity. Cultivated seaweeds have very high rates of productivity higher than that of seaweed in its natural habits and grow well in water bodies with higher nitrogen and other nutrients. Seaweeds are able to absorb large quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon dioxide, produce large quanti ties of oxygen, and have excellent effect on decreasing eutrophication. Large amounts of C, N and P are accumulated into seaweed tissues as they accumulate considerable biomass over a period of months or years depending on the cultivation season. When seaweeds are harvested, nutrients are removed from the sea area. An investigation was carried out for inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus concentration at Lusi Coast, Qidong County, Jiangsu Province in China, where there were about 270 hm2 for Porphyra yezoensis cultivation with eutrophic sea water in recent years. While during Porphyra yezoensis cultivation, from Sep 2003 to May 2004, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen declined form 0.511-0.778 mg·L-1 to 0.006-0.057 mg·L-1, nitrite nitrogen concentration declined from 0.010-0.040 mg·L-1 to 0.001-0.009 mg·L-1, and nitrate nitrogen concentration declined from 0.466-0.549 mg·L-1 to 0.286-0.0568 mg·L-1, the average concentration of inorganic phosphorus declined from 0.024 mg·L-1 to 0.019 mg·L-1. Furthermore, during five hours, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the seawater declined form 220.88 μmol·L-1 to 8.59 μmol·L-1 by cultivated Gracilaria lemanaiformis, and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen declined form 213.84 μmol·L-1 to zero by cultivated Enteromorpha clathrata. Other bioremediation mechanisms of seaweed inhibiting the red tide microalgae such as nutrients competition and allelopathic effects were also discussed.  相似文献
7.
Recent changes in the trophic structure of the Black Sea   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
During the past few decades, the Black Sea has been subjected to various human impacts that have led to changes in the ecology of this inland sea. River runoff has introduced high levels of certain heavy metals and other toxic substances as well as detergents. Ship traffic has led to the introduction of new species, and fishing pressures have also altered the ecology of the area.
This paper reviews major ecological changes over the past 40 years. An increase in nutrients has caused eutrophication, with outbursts of phytoplankton blooms and changes in the species composition of these algae. Small-sized zooplankton species and gelatinous zooplankton have become more common, while many of the herbivorous copepods have decreased in abundance or have disappeared. The introduction of the predatory ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the 1980s has had significant impact on the plankton community and has led to a sharp decline in anchovy stocks. Decreased water transparency has led to a loss of macrophytic algae, except in shallow waters, and to a subsequent decline in the zoobenthos associated with this flora. Eutrophication has also led to decreased oxygen concentrations in the near-bottom water due to large amounts of decomposing phytoplankton, and regions of hypoxia and anoxia now appear on the shelf, with consequent reduction in benthic populations of invertebrates and demersal fish. The numbers of fish species harvested commercially have fallen from 26 to 5, but the total catch has increased, owing to increases in abundance of small fish (e.g., sprat) and horse mackerel, and to increased fishing effort.  相似文献
8.
罗非鱼对蓝藻的摄食消化及对富营养化水体水华的控制   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
陆开宏 《水产学报》2005,29(6):811-818
2000年至2003年实验研究尼罗罗非鱼对铜绿微囊藻摄食、消化特性的基础上,在宁波月湖等富营养化景观水体进行了罗非鱼控制蓝藻水华的应用试验。研究表明,罗非鱼对水华蓝藻有很强的摄食与消化能力。25℃条件下,罗非鱼鱼种对铜绿微囊藻的平均消化率达67.5%,摄食率则随鱼体体重及水温的升高而增加。1999年至2000年蓝藻泛滥的月湖水体,2001年和2002年先后放养鲢鳙蚌(9.8g.m-3)和罗非鱼鱼种(3~5g.m-3)后,蓝藻水华不再出现,浮游藻类年平均细胞数量分别比2000年下降67.5%和79.6%,年平均生物量分别下降48.6%和63.8%;蓝藻占浮游植物生物量的比例由2000年的70.0%分别下降至22.1%和11.2%,水体透明度则由之前的20~50cm上升至55~137cm。在已经发生严重蓝藻水华的镇海公园等水体中,放养罗非鱼鱼种(8~15g.m-3)20d左右,水华消失,叶绿素含量和浮游植物数量显著下降,水体透明度明显提高。罗非鱼放养对水体氮、磷等营养盐指标的影响存在较大的不确定性,可能与系统初始的群落结构、营养状态及水体所承受的营养物负荷存在更大的关系。罗非鱼放养应是控制富营养化水体蓝藻水华的理想措施之一。  相似文献
9.
夏季莱州湾及附近水域理化环境及营养现状评价   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
根据2007年8月对莱州湾及附近水域的调查资料,讨论了温度、盐度、pH、溶解氧(DO)、溶解无机氮(DIN)和活性磷酸盐(PO4^3--P)等理化因子的分布特征,并对该水域的营养水平和有机污染状况进行了评价。结果表明,莱州湾西部和西南部水域表层和底层的DIN含量较高,均呈向东北方向递减的趋势;表层PO4^3--P含量分布较为均匀,在湾口中部水域有一小范围的高值区,并呈向四周逐渐递减分布。底层水平基本与表层一致,但其高值区范围较大,等值线较为密集。营养盐与盐度的相关分析表明,DIN与盐度呈显著负相关,表明DIN主要来自河流径流的输送;而PO4^3--P与盐度相关性不十分显著,这表明莱州湾PO4^3--P的补充并非主要来自河流径流输入,而是以有机物的分解矿化再生为主,同时,浮游植物的大量繁殖也是一个重要的影响因素。由水域环境质量评价结果看,N/P值均大于Redfield比值16,P显得相对缺乏。根据营养化评价模式和有机污染指数计算结果,2007年夏季莱州湾水域营养水平基本属于磷中等限制潜在性富营养,有机污染程度属3级,表明该调查水域受到轻度有机污染。  相似文献
10.
东平湖水质监测与评价   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
为客观评价山东省东平湖渔业生态环境质量状况,2004~2005年对东平湖水域的主要离子、pH、透明度、叶绿素、溶解氧、高锰酸盐指数、氮、磷等理化因子进行监测。结果表明:东平湖水域水型在不同区域分属CCⅢa、C lCⅢa、SCⅢa三种类型,且同一区域水型常发生转化;阳离子中Ca2+含量最高,阴离子中C l-和SO42-取代了CO32-和HCO3-占主导地位。运用Carlson指数近似评价法对东平湖水质进行了单因子评价和综合评价,结果表明东平湖是富营养型或超富营养型湖泊。  相似文献
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