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A method for estimating timeliness costs, depending on dry-matter yield and nutritive value of forage is presented, and used to estimate timeliness costs, to examine different harvesting systems and to present conclusions on machinery selection when harvesting silage for dairy cows in Sweden. Timeliness costs (in € ha−1 d−1) of forage for silage were significantly higher for the first cut compared with the second or third cuts in the season. It is, therefore, important to avoid delaying the first cut. The timeliness costs also varied greatly between years. Harvesting costs decreased with increasing forage area up to a certain threshold area beyond which decreasing machinery costs were outweighed by increasing timeliness costs due to a longer duration of harvest. At increasing transport distances, the difference in cost between different harvesting systems and different sizes of machinery increased. Harvesting of forage by contractors decreased harvesting costs, particularly for small forage areas, since increased annual use of the machinery lowered the machinery costs and enabled larger machines with higher capacity to be used. To avoid high timeliness costs it is important to avoid delays in harvesting.  相似文献
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