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1.
积极推广和采用节水灌溉技术是实现西部干旱半干旱地区农业可持续发展的有效途径。利用甘肃省张掖市甘州区农户的实地调查资料,采用Probit模型,分析同质性关系与异质性关系的技术采用效应,探讨同质性关系与异质性关系影响农户技术采用的内在机理。结果表明,有80.9%的农户已采用节水灌溉技术,19.1%的农户尚未采用;在采用节水灌溉技术中,有67.8%的农户选择使用低压管灌,21.1%的农户采用滴灌技术,喷灌、微灌、渗灌技术的采用率相对较少。社会网络对农户节水灌溉技术采用具有显著正向影响,但同质性关系与异质性关系对技术采用的影响存在差异,与同质性关系相比,异质性关系对农户节水灌溉技术采用的影响更为显著;户主年龄、家庭规模、非农就业比率、合作社参与情况、政府推广等显著影响农户节水灌溉技术采用。研究表明,加强与异质人群的交往有助于提高农户节水灌溉技术采用率。因此,提出了培育与建立农户异质关系网络;积极发展农村专业合作组织;加大对农技推广工作的政策支持和资金投入等建议。  相似文献
2.
This article addresses concerns of technology dissemination for small farmers, specifically focusing on the diffusion of new varieties of a self-pollinating crop. Based on bean seed systems research in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, it shows four commonly-held basic assumptions to be false, namely that: first, small-scale farmers do not buy bean seed; they mainly rely on their own stocks or obtain seed from other farmers; second, that small-scale farmers cannot afford to buy seed of newly introduced bean varieties or will not risk it; third, that farmer seed networks function efficiently in varietal diffusion; and lastly, that a good variety will sell itself. Grounded in the reality under which small farmers actually operate, the article offers recommendations for improving the delivery of newly introduced bean cultivars by NARS and seed suppliers. Most of the recommendations are relevant to other self-pollinating crops.  相似文献
3.
Contextualizing farmers’ attitudes towards genetically modified crops   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Analyses of the role of technological development in agriculture are central to an understanding of social change in agri-food systems. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the formation of a broader perspective of how farmers are positioning themselves with respect to controversial agricultural technologies through an empirical analysis of Washington State farmers’ willingness or unwillingness to try Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) technology on their farms. The use of this type of biotechnology in farming has been criticized for its potential harmful effects on natural environments and socio-cultural systems, while proponents highlight the possibilities for increasing production with minimal use of other inputs. An analysis of the extent of farmers’ expressed willingness to use GMOs provides an opportunity to better understand how their diverse thoughts about controversial agricultural technologies are shaped not only by their own experiences but also by social context. The present study does this by analyzing data from a farm survey conducted on a random sample of farmers from across Washington State. The results show that the production practices farmers utilize and the market strategies they employ may be at least as useful as farmers’ socio-economic characteristics in explaining what types of farmers appear to be more or less interested in potentially using this technology. Furthermore, the relationship between level of formal education and willingness to use GMOs is not straightforward. It may hide differences between farmers with respect to where and how they received their formal education as well as the type(s) of knowledge they gained. It is argued that future research should recognize the diversity that exists in farmers’ interests vis-á-vis particular technologies and should also explore how these interests are shaped by farmers’ past and present social networks and life experiences. Kazumi Kondoh is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at Washington State University. Her research interests include environmental policies, science and technology, and sustainable agriculture. Raymond Jussaume is an Professor and Chair, Community and Rural Sociology at Washington State University. His primary areas of interest are sociology of agriculture, development sociology, and political sociology.  相似文献
4.
 【目的】考察改良陆稻技术采用对农户收入的影响,以促进农业技术的创新与进步。【方法】为解决传统方法分析农业技术效应时农户技术采用“自选择”而带来的因果干涉问题,引入非参数的倾向得分匹配法,利用滇西南山区8县16村2000年、2002年和2004年473个农户调查数据,评估改良陆稻技术采用对山区农户收入的效应。【结果】利用倾向得分匹配法分析,改良陆稻技术采用户的收入在2000年、2002年和2004年分别是非采用情况下的1.49、1.34和1.23倍。利用描述性统计分析方法,以上3个年份中技术采用户的收入分别是非采用户的1.79、1.49和1.27倍。【结论】改良陆稻技术的采用对农户的收入提高具有稳健的正向效应。在考察的年份里,技术采用的效应呈现递减趋势。与倾向得分匹配法相比,一般描述性统计分析会高估技术采用的效应。  相似文献
5.
对国内外农户技术采纳行为的研究,从理论研究与实证研究两个方面进行了总结,并对农户技术采纳行为的研究现状进行了评价。总体来说,关于农户技术采纳行为的理论研究较少,理论体系有待完善;实证研究则缺乏相关的理论依据。  相似文献
6.
靳淑平 《农业展望》2013,(11):58-62
农业推广是农业科技进步过程中一个不可缺失的重要环节.为了实现北京郊区农业可持续发展,拓展都市型农业功能,科技推广工作将成为重中之重.通过调研大兴、密云、顺义3个区县的农技推广工作,较为全面地描述了北京郊区农技推广的现状,揭示了存在的问题,并对未来发展前景进行了展望.  相似文献
7.
The economic impacts of the Green Revolution have been studied widely, but not its social-cultural effects on different farming communities. The adoption of high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice changed the nature of rice farming in the two West Bengal villages of Padulara and Naigachi. The villages present an interesting contrast of socio-economic and cultural change due to the differences in the level of adoption of agricultural technologies. This study documents the social and cultural impacts of agricultural technology adoption, specifically the effect on rituals which guided the stages of traditional rice farming and communal life. Agricultural rituals are being modified to suit the processes of modern rice farming, while family rituals are holding strong. The study also shows the evolving nature of rituals as it reflects new found wealth, gender roles, and economic class in these villages.  相似文献
8.
The goal of this paper is to show how culture – shared norms and values – is challenged and used to facilitate cooperative behavior within the context of farmer field schools (FFS) in central Luzon, Philippines. The success of the FFS is primarily associated with cultural norms that encourage experiential and collective learning and eventually lead to the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) methods among the farmers. The study was conducted in central Luzon, the rice granary region of the Philippines, from 1992 to 1995 and again in 1999. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed. Results indicate that a keen understanding of Filipino culture and values is essential if FFS is to be successful and if farmers are to successfully learn and practice IPM. Florencia Palis has a PhD in anthropology and is working as a post-doctoral fellow at the Crop and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. She is also an adjunct faculty member at the Department of Agricultural Systems of Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.  相似文献
9.
The primary focus of agricultural research and extension in eastern Africa is technology generation and dissemination. Despite prior critiques of the shortcomings of this approach, the consequences of such activities continue to be measured through the number of technologies developed and introduced into the supply chain. At best, impact is assessed by the total numbers of adopters and by the household and system factors influencing adoption. While the diffusion research tradition has made substantive advances in recent decades, attention to what happens to technologies after adaptive, on-farm research trials continues to be limited in practice. While a host of newer approaches designed to correct for past shortcomings in diffusion research is now available, integrative methodologies that capitalize on the strengths of these different traditions are sorely needed. This article presents a more encompassing methodology for tracking the fate of technological interventions, illustrating the potential applications of findings for enhancing the positive impact of agricultural research and extension in the region. Laura German holds a BSc in Agricultural Engineering from Cornell University (2001) and a PhD in Ecological Anthropology from the University of Georgia (2001). Following many years of involvement in Latin America, she took a position in 2002 as Scientist for the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) under the African Highlands Initiative, an ecoregional program of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and a network of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in East and Central Africa. Her current research interests include theoretical and applied work in three main areas: (1) research-development linkages; (2) integrated natural resource management at the landscape/micro-catchment scale; and (3) collective action in natural resource management. Jeremias Mowo holds a BSc in Agriculture (1979) from Dar Es Salaam University and an MSc (1983) and PhD (2000) in Soil Science from Wageningen University. He worked as soil fertility specialist in cotton-based agro-ecosystems for 11 years and coordinated soil research in Tanzania for four years. From 1998 to 2005, he worked under the African Highlands Initiative as Coordinator for the Lushoto Benchmark Site in Tanzania. In May 2005, he took up a two-year contract with the Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) as Senior Scientist in Soil and Water Management Research where he is currently spearheading the Integrated Watershed Management approach. His research interests include integrated natural resource management, farmer participatory research, methods and approaches for technology transfer, soil and water management research, organic farming and use of indigenous knowledge in soil management. Margaret Kingamkono holds a BSc in Agriculture (1994) and an MSc in Agriculture (1996) from the Sokoine University of Agriculture. Since 1995, she has worked for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania with a focus on livestock production. She has carried out extensive collaborative work on areas of land resource management, participatory approaches, and crop-livestock-agroforestry interactions. Her research interests include gender and development and integrated natural resource management.  相似文献
10.
采纳行为作为创新技术在组织中应用与实施的首要步骤,对于保证后者的效果十分重要。借助近年来在技术采纳领域被广泛应用的TOE研究框架,以影响中国农业企业创新技术采纳的各类因素为研究对象,从创新技术特性、企业组织特性和外部环境特性3个方面科学地归纳出技术的感知收益、成本、相容性和组织的集权化、正规化、企业规模、高层主管的创新特性以及外部环境中竞争压力、政府的推动作用、已采纳者的影响等10项指标,不仅丰富了农业技术采纳理论,而且对于农业企业技术创新实践也具有重大的指导价值。  相似文献
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