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1.
ObjectiveTo compare tidal volume estimations obtained from Respiratory Ultrasonic Plethysmography (RUP) with simultaneous spirometric measurements in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated horses.Study designProspective randomized experimental study.AnimalsFive experimental horses.MethodsFive horses were anaesthetized twice (1 week apart) in random order in lateral and in dorsal recumbency. Nine ventilation modes (treatments) were scheduled in random order (each lasting 4 minutes) applying combinations of different tidal volumes (8, 10, 12 mL kg?1) and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) (0, 10, 20 cm H2O). Baseline ventilation mode (tidal volume = 15 mL kg?1, PEEP = 0 cm H2O) was applied for 4 minutes between all treatments. Spirometry and RUP data were downloaded to personal computers. Linear regression analyses (RUP versus spirometric tidal volume) were performed using different subsets of data. Additonally RUP was calibrated against spirometry using a regression equation for all RUP signal values (thoracic, abdominal and combined) with all data collectively and also by an individually determined best regression equation (highest R2) for each experiment (horse versus recumbency) separately. Agreement between methods was assessed with Bland-Altman analyses.ResultsThe highest correlation of RUP and spirometric tidal volume (R2 = 0.81) was found with the combined RUP signal in horses in lateral recumbency and ventilated without PEEP. The bias ± 2 SD was 0 ± 2.66 L when RUP was calibrated for collective data, but decreased to 0 ± 0.87 L when RUP was calibrated with individual data.Conclusions and clinical relevanceA possible use of RUP for tidal volume measurement during IPPV needs individual calibration to obtain limits of agreement within ± 20%.  相似文献   
2.
BACKGROUND: The recent development of very high resistance to phosphine in rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), seriously threatens stored‐grain biosecurity. The aim was to characterise this resistance, to develop a rapid bioassay for its diagnosis to support pest management and to document the distribution of resistance in Australia in 2007–2011. RESULTS: Bioassays of purified laboratory reference strains and field‐collected samples revealed three phenotypes: susceptible, weakly resistant and strongly resistant. With resistance factors of > 1000 × , resistance to phosphine expressed by the strong resistance phenotype was higher than reported for any stored‐product insect species. The new time‐to‐knockdown assay rapidly and accurately diagnosed each resistance phenotype within 6 h. Although less frequent in western Australia, weak resistance was detected throughout all grain production regions. Strong resistance occurred predominantly in central storages in eastern Australia. CONCLUSION: Resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle is expressed through two identifiable phenotypes: weak and strong. Strong resistance requires urgent changes to current fumigation dosages. The development of a rapid assay for diagnosis of resistance enables the provision of same‐day advice to expedite resistance management decisions. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
基于多源遥感数据的综合干旱监测模型构建   总被引:8,自引:7,他引:1  
在全球气候变化越来越复杂的大背景下,准确监测华北粮食主产区的旱情对区域农业生产有重要的指导意义。以往的遥感干旱监测方法多侧重于监测土壤或植被等单一干旱响应因子,反映综合信息的能力较差,为此该研究使用中分辨率成像光谱仪(moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer,MODIS)、热带降水测量计划(tropical rainfall measuring mission,TRMM)卫星等多源遥感数据,在综合考虑干旱发生发展过程中的土壤水分胁迫、植被生长状态和气象降水盈亏等因素的基础上,利用空间数据挖掘技术,构建综合干旱监测模型,并以山东省为例进行了试验验证。结果表明,模型监测出山东省近年来所经历的重大干旱过程与实际旱情一致,模型输出的旱情指标-综合干旱指数(synthesized drought index,SDI)与小麦的标准化作物单产变量的相关系数均大于0.7(P0.05);在小麦和玉米的生长期,综合干旱指数与作物受灾面积的相关系数在-0.67~-0.85之间,与标准化降水指数(standardized precipitation index,SPI)的相关系数在0.44~0.67之间,且通过了P0.01的极显著检验(3月份除外)。研究结果为综合评估区域干旱提供了一种新的方法。  相似文献   
4.
基于深度图像和生猪骨架端点分析的生猪步频特征提取   总被引:7,自引:6,他引:1  
为高效提取生猪的行走快慢特征,以微软公司Kinect作为图像采集设备,采集生猪运动深度图像序列。在对各帧深度图像进行骨架提取、剪枝的基础上,采用基于路径相似性骨架图匹配法确定生猪前后肢骨架端点,进一步以骨架端点所属骨架枝子集像素值特征判定端点远近侧属性。以生猪前后肢远、近侧端点的帧间相对坐标变化建立了生猪运动模型,提出了通过帧间坐标变化点集拟合正弦曲线计算生猪行走完整步的方法。最后,通过计算序列完整步与序列采集时间长度比值提取生猪步频特征。通过对采集的28个生猪运动深度图像序列及其镜像序列共56个图像序列进行的试验,表明该文提出方法的正确率达到82.1%。该项研究对于开展生猪异常步态分析,进一步建立生猪多源特征融合的计算机视觉异常监测系统,提高生猪异常行为预警可靠性具有重要意义。  相似文献   
5.
北京市食用林产品质量安全现状及对策   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
总结了北京市食用林产品质量安全现状,分析了建立食用林产品质量安全体系的必要性,并提出了建立食用林产品质量安全监测体系的对策,以期为北京市食用林产品质量安全监督提供参考。  相似文献   
6.
基于改进N-FINDR算法的华北平原冬小麦面积提取   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1  
为了解决MODIS数据中普遍存在的混合像元问题,该文利用2008年和2009年多时相的MODIS13Q1影像,以经过优化的N-FINDR算法进行线性混合像元分解提取冬小麦种植面积,各省的误差均控制在正负4%左右。利用同期多时相的HJ-1星分类数据作为参考值,在试验区域选择14个均匀分布的样区验证混合像元分解结果。结果显示6个样区的相对误差在10%以内,其余8个样区的误差基本在15%左右。该研究可为冬小麦种植面积的监测提供参考。  相似文献   
7.
Summary

An equine model of acute non‐immune inflammation has been developed to facilitate studies of the inflammatory process and the actions of novel anti‐inflammatory drugs. Five polyester sponge strips soaked in sterile 2% carrageenin solution were placed in subcutaneous pouches prepared under local anaesthesia in the necks of conscious ponies. Serial removal of the strips and harvesting of the exudate enabled studies to be made of the cellular, biochemical and mediator aspects of the localised, acute inflammation, and the heat generated by the lesion was monitored by infra‐red thermometry. Maximal concentrations of the eicosanoids 6‐keto‐prostaglandin F, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B, occurred at 9 h, whereas leukocyte numbers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein concentrations were greatest at 24 h. Lesional skin temperature was increased by approximately 4°C throughout the 24 h period. The novel anti‐inflammatory agent BW540C, administered orally at a dose‐rate of 20 mg/kg, did not affect leukocyte infiltration or the concentrations of protein, LDH and eicosanoids in exudate but serum thromboxane B2 levels were reduced. Skin temperature rises were greater in drug‐treated animals.

It is concluded that higher doses of BW540C will be required for a clinically useful anti‐inflammatory action in horses.  相似文献   
8.
Reason for performing study: Accumulations of tracheal mucus assessed by endoscopic examination are associated with poor performance in racehorses. The air quality in horses' stalls may contribute to this visible tracheal mucus. Objectives: To determine whether the concentration and number of airborne particulates in stalls are associated with visible accumulations of tracheal mucus and with the number of inflammatory cells in tracheal aspirates. Methods: We studied 107 racehorses from 3 stables, in 3 different months, and measured airborne particulate matter 3 times daily in each of the stalls. On each monthly visit, horse airways were examined endoscopically and assigned a mucus score, and tracheal lavage was performed. Bivariate procedures, general estimating equations and linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between PM and the presence of accumulations of mucus and number of inflammatory cells. Results: Stable, stall, month and PM were all significantly associated with the presence of accumulations of tracheal mucus, which had an overall prevalence of 67%. The odds of horses having visible accumulation of mucus were increased when horses occupied enclosed stables or stalls with higher particulate concentrations, and when concentrations of larger particles (≤10 µm in diameter) were elevated. Sixty‐eight percent of tracheal wash samples contained more than 20% neutrophils. Increased numbers of neutrophils were associated with the concentration of smaller particles (≤2.5 µm in diameter). Potential relevance: Careful consideration of stable construction and management practices focused on maintaining the lowest possible dust concentrations throughout the day should reduce the prevalence of visible accumulations of tracheal mucus, potentially improving racing performance.  相似文献   
9.
捕捞努力量是渔业资源管理和评估领域的重要参数之一,传统捕捞努力量计算方法无法满足实时、大范围、快速统计的需要。以我国近海作业的某张网渔船为研究对象,采用BP(back propagation)神经网络模型,对张网船155在2016年和2017年北斗渔船监控系统所获取的若干连续航次的经纬度坐标、航速和航向等信息进行分析和判断,提取各航次作业的网位坐标,通过阈值筛选渔船布网位置和时间,计算放网时长,把网口迎流面积与放网时长的乘积作为网次的捕捞努力量。结合BP神经网络和阈值分析的判断结果,网位判断准确率为82%,4个航次累计捕捞时长3562.62 h,累计捕捞努力量712524(m2·h)。设计的张网渔船状态判断、确定网位、放网时长提取和捕捞努力量计算方法为张网作业分析和其捕捞强度量化提供新的研究思路。  相似文献   
10.
宁夏以兽药生产经营使用环节全链条监管、动物源细菌耐药性监测技术体系建立、养殖场生物安全体系构建、减抗替抗产品推广应用、示范点带动等重点工作为切入点,强化质量保障,重视创新驱动,构建“政府+企业”产学研合作机制,不断促进兽用抗菌药使用减量化,形成了一套“监管到位、技术保障、企业尽责、用药减量”的兽用抗菌药使用减量化技术推广模式。  相似文献   
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