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排序方式: 共有581条查询结果,搜索用时 114 毫秒
1.
Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Disease-suppressive soils are exceptional ecosystems in which crop plants suffer less from specific soil-borne pathogens than expected owing to the activities of other soil microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, the microbes and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. By coupling PhyloChip-based metagenomics of the rhizosphere microbiome with culture-dependent functional analyses, we identified key bacterial taxa and genes involved in suppression of a fungal root pathogen. More than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species were detected, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria consistently associated with disease suppression. Members of the γ-Proteobacteria were shown to have disease-suppressive activity governed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Our data indicate that upon attack by a fungal root pathogen, plants can exploit microbial consortia from soil for protection against infections.  相似文献
2.
Phospholipase A(2)(PLA(2)) enzymes are considered the primary source of arachidonic acid for cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Here, we show that a distinct pathway exists in brain, where monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol to generate a major arachidonate precursor pool for neuroinflammatory prostaglandins. MAGL-disrupted animals show neuroprotection in a parkinsonian mouse model. These animals are spared the hemorrhaging caused by COX inhibitors in the gut, where prostaglandins are instead regulated by cytosolic PLA(2). These findings identify MAGL as a distinct metabolic node that couples endocannabinoid to prostaglandin signaling networks in the nervous system and suggest that inhibition of this enzyme may be a new and potentially safer way to suppress the proinflammatory cascades that underlie neurodegenerative disorders.  相似文献
3.
A growing literature on scholarly and practical approaches to conservation and development uses a livelihood approach to understand rural peoples’ diverse assets and activities, especially as they serve to minimize vulnerability to economic and ecological shocks. In recent years, the suite of potential assets available to rural households has been theorized as human, natural, physical, social, and cultural capitals and includes the context in which they are used. Here we explore Wounaan livelihood strategies and how they articulate with the dynamic political economic history of eastern Panama. Known in Panama as forest dependent swiddeners, semi-structured interviews and participant observation revealed Wounaan’s increasing reliance on fishing, artisanship, and ecotourism in their income profiles. While these income sources are linked to decreasing land availability and increasing market opportunities, we address the role of cultural beliefs and values in Wounaan negotiation of their income strategies. J. Vela′squez Runk has studied ecology and anthropology in eastern Panama for ten years. Presently she is a Resident Scholar at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Gervacio Ortíz is a business student at the University of Panama and a resident of Majé, Panama. Wilio Quintero is a resident of Boca Lara, Panama. Cristobalino Quiróz is a resident of Boca Lara, Panama.  相似文献
4.
Long-term sustainability of a high-energy, low-diversity crustal biome   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Geochemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of alkaline saline groundwater at 2.8 kilometers depth in Archaean metabasalt revealed a microbial biome dominated by a single phylotype affiliated with thermophilic sulfate reducers belonging to Firmicutes. These sulfate reducers were sustained by geologically produced sulfate and hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to maintain activities for millions of years with no apparent reliance on photosynthetically derived substrates.  相似文献
5.
Modulation of cell adhesion and motility in the immune system by Myo1f   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Although class I myosins are known to play a wide range of roles, the physiological function of long-tailed class I myosins in vertebrates remains elusive. We demonstrated that one of these proteins, Myo1f, is expressed predominantly in the mammalian immune system. Cells from Myo1f-deficient mice exhibited abnormally increased adhesion and reduced motility, resulting from augmented exocytosis of beta2 integrin-containing granules. Also, the cortical actin that co-localizes with Myo1f was reduced in Myo1f-deficient cells. In vivo, Myo1f-deficient mice showed increased susceptibility to infection by Listeria monocytogenes and an impaired neutrophil response. Thus, Myo1f directs immune cell motility and innate host defense against infection.  相似文献
6.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals. Treatment of obese and diabetic mice with these compounds resulted in normalization of hyperglycemia, restoration of systemic insulin sensitivity, resolution of fatty liver disease, and enhancement of insulin action in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.  相似文献
7.
The prediction of seedy grape drying rate using a neural network method   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper presents an application which uses Feedforward Neural Networks (FNNs) to model the nonlinear behaviour of the drying of seedy grapes. First, a novel type of dryer for experimentally and mathematically evaluating the thin-layer drying kinetics of seedy grapes is developed. In the developed drying system, an expanded-surface solar air collector, a solar air collector with Phase-Change Material (PCM) and drying room with swirl element have been particularly included. Secondly, the drying rate is estimated as an exponential-type equation using non-linear regression analysis. Thirdly, the drying rate of seedy grapes is estimated using an FNN. Finally, the performance of the FNN model is compared with those of nonlinear and linear regression models by means of the root mean square errors, the mean absolute errors, and the correlation coefficient statistics. The results indicate that the FNN is more accurate and performed more consistently than alternative approaches employed in estimating drying rate.  相似文献
8.
To improve the nutritional value and the palatability of air-dried rice straw, culture broth of the lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 was used to examine the effects of two different treatments, fermentation and adsorption. Air-dried and chopped rice straw was treated with either fermentation for 30 d after adding 1.5 L nutrient solution(50 m L inocula L–1, 1.2×1012 CFU m L–1 inocula) kg–1 straw dry matter, or spraying a large amount of culture broth(1.5 L kg–1 straw dry matter, 1.5×1011 CFU m L–1 culture broth) on the straw and allowing it to adsorb for 30 min. The feed quality and aerobic stability of the resulting forage were examined. Both treatments improved the feed quality of rice straw, and adsorption was better than fermentation for preserving nutrients and improving digestibility, as evidenced by higher dry matter(DM) and crude protein(CP) concentrations, lower neutral detergent fiber(NDF), acid detergent fiber(ADF) and NH3-N concentrations, as well as higher lactic acid production and in vitro digestibility of DM(IVDMD). The aerobic stability of the adsorbed straw and the fermented straw was 392 and 480 h, respectively. After being exposed to air, chemical components and microbial community of the fermented straw were more stable than the adsorbed straw.  相似文献
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