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1.
BP神经网络在不同植被产流产沙分析中的应用   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
以甘肃省西峰市南小河沟小流域径流场为研究对象,利用BP神经网络对4种植被类型的径流小区(农田、林地、人工草地和天然荒坡)进行了产流产沙量模拟和预测。其模拟产流量的相对误差分别为0.2%~5.7%,0.1%~2.5%,0.7%~2.9%和0.1%~3%;模拟产沙量的相对误差分别为0.1%~3.2%,0.2%~3.1%,0.6%~4.2%和0.2%~2.7%。预测农地、林地、草地和天然荒坡产沙量最大相对误差分别为-11%,14%,-14.6%,18%,产流量最大相对误差分别为10.9%,27.3%,15%,26.3%。结果表明,BP神经网络预测产流产沙的效果较好,对径流小区运用神经网络进行蓄水拦沙指标分析是可行的。  相似文献
2.
A computerized parametric methodology was applied to monitor, map, and estimate vegetation change in combination with "3S" (RS--remote sensing, GIS--geographic information systems, and GPS---global positioning system) technology and change detection techniques at a 1:50 000 mapping scale in the Letianxi Watershed of western Hubei Province, China. Satellite images (Landsat TM 1997 and Landsat ETM 2002) and thematic maps were used to provide comprehensive views of surface conditions such as vegetation cover and land use change. With ER Mapper and ERDAS software, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed and then classified into six vegetation density classes. ARC/INFO and ArcView software were used along with field observation data by GPS for analysis. Results obtained using spatial analysis methods showed that NDVI was a valuable first cut indicator for vegetation and land use systems. A regression analysis revealed that NDVI explained 94.5% of the variations for vegetation cover in the largest vegetation area, indicating that the relationship between vegetation and NDVI was not a simple linear process. Vegetation cover increased in four of areas. This meant 60.9% of land area had very slight to slight vegetation change, while 39.1% had moderate to severe vegetation change. Thus, the study area, in general, was exposed to a high risk of vegetation cover change.  相似文献
3.
太行山区植被NPP时空变化特征及其驱动力分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
本文基于2000—2014年MODIS NPP数据,结合同期土地利用变化、气温、降水和DEM数据,运用趋势分析法、相关系数法及分区统计法等方法,研究了太行山区2000—2014年植被NPP时空变化特征,分析了气温、降水等气候因素和人为因素对植被NPP变化的影响,为太行山区植被资源管理及生态环境调控提供参考.研究结果表明:(1)太行山区植被NPP多年平均值为284.0 g(C)·m﹣2·a﹣1,耕地、林地和草地的NPP均值分别为302.5 g(C)·m﹣2·a﹣1、258.1 g(C)·m﹣2·a﹣1、286.5 g(C)·m﹣2·a﹣1.(2)2000—2014年太行山区植被NPP整体呈上升趋势,但大部分植被NPP变化未达到显著水平;16.17%的植被NPP显著或极显著升高,主要分布在太行山区西侧;0.88%的植被NPP显著或极显著降低,零散分布在研究区内.(3)不同植被类型NPP变化速率为草地>耕地>林地.(4)基于区域平均计算,太行山区植被NPP与降水显著正相关(P<0.05),与气温负相关(P>0.05).基于像元计算,植被NPP与降水显著或极显著正相关区面积比例为23.82%,主要分布在太行山区北段,几乎没有显著负相关区;植被NPP与气温显著或极显著负相关区面积比例为8.42%,主要分布在太行山区西侧,显著或极显著正相关区面积比例为0.81%,主要分布在太行山区最北端.(5)研究期内气候因子对植被NPP的升高整体上表现为促进作用,而人为因素主要表现为抑制作用.太行山区生态环境保护仍应以减少人为干扰为主.  相似文献
4.
近15年锡林郭勒盟植被变化时空特征及其对气候的响应   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
全球变化背景下,植被动态变化及其与气候的关系研究,是当前国际社会十分关注的科学问题.研究植被NDVI时空变化特征及其对气候的响应,对调节生态过程、改善生态环境质量具有重要的理论和实际意义.基于锡林郭勒盟2001-2015年MODIS NDVI数据及该地区气温、降水数据,利用Sen斜率估计与Mann Kendall统计检验、相关分析等方法,探讨了其植被时空变化特征及其对气候因子的响应.结果表明:1)锡林郭勒盟2001-2015年平均植被NDVI呈波动上升趋势,其变化过程出现了2次较明显的波动,2个波峰分别出现在2003和2012年,其中2008年植被NDVI出现了1次明显的增加.2)锡林郭勒盟NDVI大体呈现出“东高西低”的空间分布特征,变化趋势总体表现为上升,具体为先下降后上升;空间分布上,太仆寺旗、多伦县增加趋势显著,西部苏尼特左旗、二连浩特市下降趋势明显;草原类型上,显著上升面积从大到小依次为草甸草原、典型草原和荒漠草原.3)NDVI出现峰值的年份与同年降水量波峰相对应,但区域植被变化对气候因子的响应及其相关关系因季节和植被类型而异.植被状况改善与降水量关系密切,只有结合区域气候要素,开展相关生态工程,才能充分发挥生态保护的效益.  相似文献
5.
Carbon isotopic composition of soils subjected to C3-C4 vegetation change is a suitable tool for the estimation of C turnover in soil organic matter (SOM) pools. We hypothesized that the biological availability of SOM pools is inversely proportional to their thermal stability. Soil samples from a field plot with 10.5 years of cultivation of the C4 plant Miscanthus×gigantheus and from a reference plot under C3 grassland vegetation were analysed by thermogravimetry coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). According to differential weight losses (dTG) and energy release or consumption (DSC), five SOM pools with increasing thermal stability were distinguished: (I) 20-190 °C, (II) 190-310 °C, (III) 310-390 °C, (IV) 390-480 °C, and (V) 480-1000 °C. Their δ13C values were analysed by EA-IRMS. The weight losses in pool I were connected with water evaporation, since no significant C losses were measured and δ13C values remained unchanged. The δ13C of pools II and III in soil samples under Miscanthus were closer to the δ13C of the Miscanthus plant tissues (−11.8‰) compared to the thermally stable SOM pool V (−19.5‰). The portion of the Miscanthus-derived C4-C in total SOM in 0-5 cm reached 55.4% in the 10.5 years. The C4-C contribution in pool II was 60% and decreased down to 6% in pool V. The mean residence times (MRT) of SOM pools II, III, and IV were similar (11.6, 12.2, and 15.4 years, respectively), while pool V had a MRT of 163 years. Therefore, we concluded that the biological availability of thermal labile SOM pools (<480 °C) was higher, than that of the thermal stable pool decomposed above 480 °C. However, the increase of SOM stability with rising temperature was not gradual. Therefore, the applicability of the TG-DSC for the separation of SOM pools with different biological availability is limited.  相似文献
6.
Vast areas on the Tibetan Plateau are covered by alpine sedge mats consisting of different species of the genus Kobresia. These mats have topsoil horizons rich in rhizogenic organic matter which creates turfs. As the turfs have recently been affected by a complex destruction process, knowledge concerning their soil properties, age and pedogenesis are needed. In the core area of Kobresia pygmaea mats around Nagqu (central Tibetan Plateau, c. 4500 m a.s.l.), four profiles were subjected to pedological, paleobotanical and geochronological analyses concentrating on soil properties, phytogenic composition and dating of the turf. The turf of both dry K. pygmaea sites and wet Kobresia schoenoides sites is characterised by an enrichment of living (dominant portion) and dead root biomass. In terms of humus forms, K. pygmaea turfs can be classified as Rhizomulls mainly developed from Cambisols. Wet-site K. schoenoides turfs, however, can be classified as Rhizo-Hydromors developed from Histic Gleysols. At the dry sites studied, the turnover of soil organic matter is controlled by a non-permafrost cold thermal regime. Below-ground remains from sedges are the most frequent macroremains in the turf. Only a few pollen types of vascular plants occur, predominantly originating from sedges and grasses. Large amounts of microscopic charcoal (indeterminate) are present. Macroremains and pollen extracted from the turfs predominantly have negative AMS 14C ages, giving evidence of a modern turf genesis. Bulk-soil datings from the lowermost part of the turfs have a Late Holocene age comprising the last c. 2000 years. The development of K. pygmaea turfs was most probably caused by an anthropo(zoo)-genetically initiated growth of sedge mats replacing former grass-dominated vegetation (‘steppe’). Thus the turfs result from the transformation of pre-existing topsoils comprising a secondary penetration and accumulation of roots. K. schoenoides turfs, however, are characterised by a combined process of peat formation and penetration/accumulation of roots probably representing a (quasi) natural wetland vegetation.  相似文献
7.
Effects of elevated S and N deposition on the solution chemistry of Dutch forest soils are mainly manifested by increased concentrations of Al associated with increased concentrations of SO4 and NO4. Presumed critical Al/base cation ratios are often exceeded below 20 cm soil depth. There is also evidence that elevated N deposion during the last decades affected the forest nutrient status and caused large changes in forest vegetation. About half of the Dutch forests have absolute shortage of P and relative Mg deficiencies compared to foliar N contents. Evidence from field studies of a relationship between soil acidification and nutrient imbalances in the soil and the foliage on one hand and the vitality of forests on the other hand is, however, lacking.  相似文献
8.
Changes in vegetation are often caused by changes in abiotic site factors, such as pH, nitrogen availability and soil moisture. It has been recognized that abiotic site factors are affected by atmospheric deposition and groundwater-table changes. In order to evaluate the effects of eutrophication, acidification and desiccation on site factors, the model SMART2 has been developed. For the Netherlands combinations of two acidification and two seepage scenarios (1990–2050) were evaluated with SMART2. The results are focused on pH, nitrogen availability and base saturation. Calculations were made for combinations of five vegetation structures on seven soil types and the five groundwater-table classes, using a 1 km2 grid. Results showed that deposition reductions lead to a relatively fast improvement of the site factors, increase in pH and base saturation and decrease in N availability. Whereas a reduction in groundwater abstractions of 25% has little or no effect on the pH and N availability.  相似文献
9.
Subalpine meadows, which traditionally were mown every other year, are particularly rich in plant species, especially forbs. Near Davos (Switzerland) we compared the vegetation of mown sites with that of sites grazed for up to 50 years by non-lactating cows. We recorded an overall mean of 51.5 plant species per 4×4 m plot. Among grazed sites, evenness decreased with time since conversion to grazing (−0.11 in 50 years; P<0.05), suggesting progressive vegetation change, which may eventually result in the loss of species. Ground cover by forbs tended to be higher in mown than in grazed sites (by 7.2%; P<0.1). The proportion of not-clonally colonising perennial species decreased after conversion to grazing (−7.72%; in 50 years, P<0.05), while the cover by graminoid species increased (+14.2% in 50 years; P<0.1). More intensively grazed sites had a lower cover of dwarf shrubs and higher cover of legume species (P<0.05). Because grazing negatively affects both botanical richness and agricultural quality, mowing of traditionally mown subalpine meadows should be maintained, and recently grazed meadows should be reconverted to mowing.  相似文献
10.
Eutrophication of woodland ecosystems and disappearance of acidophilous species have often been observed in central and western Europe over recent decades. Considerable increase in air-borne nitrogen and sulphur has been invoked as responsible for these processes in most studies. Historic data indicate that for hundreds of years man removed litter and fodder from many woodlands in these areas. As a result, woodland soils became poorer and more acid than they were originally. Cessation of the removal of materials may resulted in soil enrichment and eutrophication of many woods. This hypothesis was tested in a 16-year litter removal experiment in an acidophilous mixed oak-pine wood in southern Poland. It was found that litter removal resulted in substantial impoverishment of soil. After 16 years soil of the litter removal plots contained significantly less P, Mg and Ca, and had a lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the epihumus subhorizon, and less Ca and a lower CEC in the humus and lessivage horizons than soil in the control plots. Vascular plant species and bryophytes colonized the litter removal plots much more frequently. Within 16 years species richness increased in the field layer of these plots, but abundance of dominant species and character of vegetation remained unchanged, while vegetation of the control plots changed from acidophilous to neutrophilous. Disappearance in the control plots of vascular plants species and mosses common in mixed woodlands was caused by thick litter layer which impeded seed germination and seedling development, and by competition of dominant species. The results obtained suggest that acidophilous vegetation in the field layer of the study wood was associated with material removal by man over a long time, and its eutrophication largely resulted from the cessation of traditional methods of management.  相似文献
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