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1.
黑大豆种皮花色苷的提取及其抗氧化作用研究   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22       下载免费PDF全文
以黑大豆皮为材料,采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计对其花色苷的提取工艺进行了优化研究。结果表明,最佳提取参数为温度60℃、时间1 h、乙醇浓度60%、料液比1∶40。对黑大豆种皮花色苷含量与总抗氧化能力之间的相关性分析表明,二者之间存在极显著的线性关系(P<0.01),且黑大豆种皮花色苷提取物表现出较强的清除OH·、O-2·及有机自由基DPPH·的体外抗氧化作用,其清除能力是维生素C的1.6倍、2.2倍、1.4倍。  相似文献
2.
稻种包衣处理应用于工厂化育秧的试验研究   总被引:10,自引:3,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
为了适应水稻抛秧工厂化育苗过程中精密播种的需要,对稻种进行了包衣处理。通过2年共8批大棚育秧试验研究,结果表明:稻种采用包衣处理,可以省去浸种催芽这一传统技术环节,有利于机械精密播种,简化了育秧过程,实现了播种、育秧的机械化、工厂化生产,且能够在育秧工厂中培育出符合农艺要求的壮秧来  相似文献
3.
水稻包衣直播机设计与试验研究   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
针对目前水稻包衣和催芽技术存在的问题,研制了一种以催芽种子为主的新型排种器—振动式包衣排种器,介绍了该排种器的结构和工作原理。将该排种器安装在普通直播机上,对其进行台架试验和田间试验。结果表明:振动式包衣直播机包衣合格率>85%,播种合格率>85%,变异系数<25%,伤芽率<2%,能够满足包衣和精量播种作业要求。振动式包衣直播机能使催芽湿种子与种衣剂滚团粘附包膜包衣,在播种作业时一次完成种子包衣、直播作业,省去了包衣种子烘干、包装、贮存等过程。  相似文献
4.
γ射线诱发水稻粒色突变体的研究   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
以350Gyγ射线辐照粳型恢复系K1722干种子,经加代筛选后,获得了粒色分别为红黑色和红褐色的2份有色突变体RK1722-1、RK1722-2。与原亲本相比,2份突变体的生长势有减弱趋势,但未达显著水平;突变体与不育系宁67A配组所得杂种F1的主要农艺性状与对照组合相仿,且所结籽粒均为有色米;简单遗传分析表明,2份粒色突变体均为单基因突变。本文还就利用诱变技术创造粒色突变体和开展有色杂交稻利用等问题进行了探讨。  相似文献
5.
Seventy Frankia spp. strains (nodulating N2-fixing actinomycetes) were isolated from root nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia from different localities of Tamil Nadu state, India. From these, four strains (UMCe12, UMCe23, UMCe35, and UMce55) were selected. Their potential use as biological control agents for Rhizoctonia solani root rot disease of C. equisetifolia seedlings and their relative efficiency in nodule production were investigated. Between the two inoculum broadcast systems tested, seed-coating with Frankia spp. cell suspension was superior to the soil application of cells as sand-vermiculite-basal ammonium propionate inoculum. UMCe12 was the promising strain, offering the highest level of disease protection (81.1%) and nodule production (88.1%) in the R. solani-infested soil, followed by UMCe23 (60.3 and 65.5% of disease protection and nodule production, respectively), UMCe55 (53.5 and 58.2%), and UMCe35 (45.4 and 44.5%). Further, a significant positive correlation was observed between the dose of Frankia spp. and efficiency in both disease control and nodule production.  相似文献
6.
在不同土壤水分条件下,研究不同剂型土壤调理剂对玉米、大豆和黑麦草出苗的影响,找出土壤调理剂作种子包衣的显效土壤水分阈值,为发挥土壤调理剂的抗旱保苗功效提供依据。  相似文献
7.
Inoculation of legume seed is an efficient and convenient way of introducing effective rhizobia to soil and subsequently the rhizosphere of legumes. However, its full potential is yet to be realised. Following widespread crop failures, the manufacture of high quality inoculants revolutionised legume technology in Australia in the 1960s. Many improvements to inoculants and the advent of an inoculant control service ensured that quality was optimised and maintained. Minimum standards for the number of rhizobia per seed were set after consideration of several factors including seed size and loss of viability during inoculation. Despite manufacturers' recommendations for storage and application of inoculants, there is a distinct lack of control over the inoculation process; hence the full potential of high quality products may not always be achieved. The efficacy of inoculation varies depending on several factors, all of which affect the number of viable rhizobia available for infection of legume roots. Increased numbers of viable rhizobia per seed by application of inoculant above the commercially recommended rate, results in a continued linear increase in nodulation and yield. Several studies have reported yield increases of up to 25%. However, applying higher quantities of inoculant is uneconomical and technically difficult. Alternatively, higher numbers of viable rhizobia per seed may be achieved by improving survival during seed inoculation. Despite recognition of the factors affecting survival of rhizobia on seed and a substantial demand for commercially pre-inoculated legume seed, poor survival is still a major concern. Desiccation, temperature and seed coat toxicity all influence survival of rhizobia on seed. Their adverse effects may be ameliorated by selecting tolerant rhizobial strains and legume seed cultivars with low toxicity or artificially, by the use of additives in the seed coating. The accumulation of the desiccant protectant trehalose in strains of rhizobia, may result in better survival under desiccation stress. Similarly, the accumulation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) may act as a barrier reducing excessive water loss. Polymeric adhesives such as gum arabic, methyl cellulose and polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) have improved survival. However, studies of additives used in inoculation have been ad hoc and little of their mode of action is understood. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the protection of rhizobia from adverse conditions will assist in defining the optimum conditions for seed inoculation and storage to ensure a higher quality product for farmers at the time of sowing.  相似文献
8.
Morphological and physiological seed characteristics of the hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) were investigated in a set of 18 different germplasm accessions, from wild over semi-domesticated forms to landraces and current cultivars. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of the domestication of this tropical legume crop. Wild accessions were easily distinguished by morphological characters, such as small, greyish-brown, mottled seeds. Cultivated or semi-domesticated forms showed a much wider variation in size, colour and shape. Seed mass of cultivated accessions reached up to almost 10 times that of wild accessions. Most wild accessions showed a greater spread of germination and larger proportions of hard seeds, up to about 70%, than most cultivated and so-called semi-domesticated accessions. Cluster analysis applied separately to morphological and germination data and a subsequent discriminant analysis did not help integrating the morphological variability observed. The presumed occurrence of semi-domesticated accessions within the germplasm tested as well as the crop's origin from Africa alone or both Africa and Asia are debated on the basis of seed germination and hard seed coat dormancy.  相似文献
9.
Molecular and morphological variation of six perennial and five annual species including domesticated chickpea, C. arietinum, were inferred on the basis of RAPD and S.E.M. seed coat features using three outgroup taxa (Lens ervoides, Lathyrus japonica and Pisum sativum). Of the 66 decamer arbitrary primers tested, eight primers revealed 87 informative fragments. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis using Jaccard's coefficient of similarity on the basis of polymorphic fragments indicated a narrow variation in C. arietinum and recognized two major clusters in the genus Cicer. The first one included four species of sect. Monocicer: C. echinospermum, C. arietinum, C. reticulatum and Iranian material of C. bijugum. The second cluster contained annual and perennial species belonging to sections Chamaecicer, Polycicer and Acanthocicer. The character state of morphological and ecological traits on the RAPD phenogram indicated no monophyletic incision. Our results suggested that the high genetic difference between annual and perennial species might be regarded as a rapid speciation of section Monocicer. Reconsideration of traditional classification of sections Polycicer and Acanthocicer is necessary. The Desi and Kabuli types of C. arietinum could not be separately grouped at the DNA level, and the low level of genetic variation of C. arietinum may result from a bottleneck during the domestication process.  相似文献
10.
以棉种'新陆中54号'为材料,用3种种衣剂(棉1、棉2、棉3)包衣棉种后播种于塑料营养盒内,25℃恒温培养,分别在第4天(棉种长出胚根)和第7天(棉株幼苗)均进行5、10、15、20℃共4个低温处理,与各低温下未包衣种子(对照,CK)进行比较,低温处理24h后,观察各处理棉花胚根、幼苗外部形态和超微结构的变化,以期通过模拟新疆早春"倒春寒"发生特点,考察种衣剂对提高棉花耐寒性的功效.结果表明:20℃下种衣剂处理与CK无差异,种子萌发正常,发芽率在92.24%~95.51%,3种种衣剂包衣处理胚根生长量为3.66~3.81cm,幼苗叶色浓绿,茎杆直立,胚根细胞中线粒体结构完整,叶肉细胞中线粒体、叶绿体结构规则;15℃低温下种衣剂处理棉种发芽率较CK提高4.45~6.98个百分点,胚根生长速度下降,但包衣处理生长量较CK提高25.27%~36.05%,幼苗叶色浓绿,棉苗直立,胚根细胞中线粒体内脊清晰,叶肉细胞中叶绿体、线粒体结构清晰,细胞器结构和数量明显优于CK;10℃低温下棉种发芽受到抑制,但包衣处理较CK发芽率提高0.73~4.25个百分点,19.15%~42.55%的幼苗叶片下垂萎蔫,保持正常温度后种衣剂处理棉苗很快恢复到正常形态,胚根细胞中线粒体、内质网数目多于CK,叶肉细胞中叶绿体轮廓清晰,内含物较少;5℃低温下各处理棉种发芽率均低于50.00%,CK幼苗叶色脱水失绿,萎蔫下垂,萎蔫率达74.47%,叶绿体膨胀成圆球形、轮廓模糊,包衣处理幼苗萎蔫率在60.42%~67.45%,叶肉细胞中叶绿体结构完整,呈椭球型,线粒体结构较规则、内含物浑浊.研究表明种衣剂能促进低温处理下种子萌发、提高发芽率和胚根生长速度、保护棉苗外部形态和细胞超微结构稳定,维持正常生长,增强幼苗抵御低温的危害能力.  相似文献
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