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1.
国主要江河流域土壤侵蚀量测算   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
 为了对我国土壤侵蚀进行评估,需要测算多年平均侵蚀量。在前人研究的基础上,收集主要江河泥沙测验资料和水土保持研究资料,采用河流泥沙输移比法和水土保持法,测算出我国黄河、长江等9大江河流域多年平均侵蚀量为53.10亿t,并与相关资料进行对比;讨论流域分区的泥沙输移比差异。结果表明:侵蚀总量以长江流域最大,黄河流域次之,淮河、珠江、辽河、松花江流域依次居后,闽江和钱塘江流域最少。  相似文献
2.
云贵高原区龙川江上游泥沙输移比研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
利用云贵高原区龙川江上游8条典型小流域水库泥沙淤积资料和小河口水文站输沙量资料,分析建立小流域输沙模数与流域面积的关系,依此求算出龙川江上游小流域(流域面积10.8~216.8km2)泥沙输移比变化于0.42~0.80之间,小河口水文站泥沙输移比计算值为0.26。  相似文献
3.
泥沙输移比的研究方法及成果分析   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
泥沙输移比是反映流域侵蚀产沙输移能力的指标,对正确评价水土保持减沙效益及流域治理决策有着重要的科学意义与应用价值。对国内外泥沙输移比的研究方法及成果进行总结与分析,认为泥沙输移比的研究方法可分为直接计算(根据定义)与模型计算(通过建立泥沙输移比模型)2种。直接计算的关键是土壤侵蚀量的获取,而计算模型目前主要有因子经验模型、分布式模型与物理模型。在对泥沙输移比研究中土壤侵蚀量获取方法及建立的泥沙输移比模型进行总结与评述的基础上,按黄河流域、长江流域、国内其他地区及国外一些地区,分析了其泥沙输移比的研究成果,讨论了目前泥沙输移比研究中存在的3个问题及今后的发展方向。  相似文献
4.
 通过涪江流域水文站控制区域的地貌与土地利用类型的综合分析,以不同土地利用类型地块作为侵蚀量计算单元,计算每个流域发生侵蚀的地块(即旱坡地、陡坡旱地、有林地、疏林地、草地、灌木地和裸地)侵蚀量,得到全流域年均侵蚀量为2 460万t/a,年均侵蚀模数为813.9 t/(km2.a),上游山地区侵蚀模数>1 000 t/(km2.a),紫色丘陵区侵蚀模数50~0800t/(km2.a);流域平均泥沙输移比为0.83,上游泥沙输移比>0.90,中下游丘陵区泥沙输移比在0.30~0.80之间,而在流域上中游山地丘陵衔接的冲洪积扇区的年均泥沙沉积量约144万t/a;流域泥沙输移比与流域面积不存在固定的线性关系,其根本原因在于流域面积是度量衡单位,而不是影响因素。  相似文献
5.
应用分形理论空间尺度效应原理,采用137^Cs同位素示踪法测定小流域多年平均侵蚀模数和调查紫色土丘陵区不同小流域多年平均淤积模数的方法,探讨了泥沙输移比与小流域集雨面积的关系,得出了长江上游川中紫色土丘陵区小流域泥沙输移比空间尺度效应泥沙输移比(SDR)统计模型。经验证,该模型可用于估算紫色土丘陵区资料短缺小流域的输移比和产沙量。  相似文献
6.
Sediment budgets have been established for two small (<4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments, by using 137Cs measurements, sediment source fingerprinting and more traditional monitoring techniques to quantify the individual components of the budget. The gross and net erosion rates for the fields on the catchment slopes were estimated using 137Cs measurements within selected fields, which encompassed a representative range of slope angles, slope lengths and land use. These estimates were extrapolated over the entire catchment, using a simple topographically driven soil erosion model (Terrain-Based GIS, TBGIS) superimposed on a DEM, to derive catchment average gross and net erosion rates. Suspended sediment yields were measured at the catchment outlets and sediment source fingerprinting techniques were used to establish the relative contributions from the catchment surface, subsurface tile drains and eroding channel banks to the sediment yields. In-channel and wetland storage were quantified using both direct measurements and 137Cs measurements. The sediment budgets established for the catchments highlighted the importance of subsurface tile drains as a pathway for sediment transfer, accounting for ca. 60% and 30% of the sediment output from the two catchments. Erosion from channel banks contributed ca. 10% and 6% of the sediment output from the two catchments. Although the suspended sediment yields from these catchments were considered high by UK standards (ca. 90 t km−2 year−1), the sediment delivery ratios ranged between 14% and 27%, indicating that a major proportion of the mobilised sediment was stored within the catchments. In-field and field-to-channel storage were shown to be of similar magnitude, but storage of sediment in the channel system and associated wetlands was relatively small, representing <5% of the annual suspended sediment yield.  相似文献
7.
基于AnnAGNPS模型的大宁河流域泥沙输移比评价   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
选择三峡库区大宁河流域为研究区,基于流域土地利用、土壤、地形及11个气象站8 a气象数据等资料,利用分布式流域评价模型-AnnAGNPS研究了流域泥沙输移特性.结果表明,大宁河流域多年平均输沙量自上游巫溪站的1.25×106t/a,沿程递增至大昌站的1.81×106t/a,大昌站以下增加缓慢,到流域出口为1.95×106t/a;东溪河和巫溪站以下至大昌站的大宁河干流左岸区间是两大产沙集中区;全流域SDR值为0.30,各子流域SDR值变化范围为0.376~0.531,与相关文献研究结果一致;干流控制站SDR值与流域站点控制面积呈负相关关系(r2=0.73),但这种关系在各支流上不明显,这是由于各子流域地形、土壤、土地利用和降雨量空间异质性都很大,表明对于不同的流域,仅用SDR值与流域面积关系无法确切计算其SDR值.  相似文献
8.
This paper presents two new definitions of sediment and water flux connectivity (from source through slopes to channels/sinks) with examples of applications to sediment fluxes. The two indices of connectivity are operatively defined, one (IC) that can be calculated in a GIS environment and represents a connectivity assessment based on landscape's information, and another that can be evaluated in the field (FIC) through direct assessment. While IC represent a potential connectivity characteristic of the local landscape, since nothing is used to represent the characteristics of causative events, FIC depend on the intensities of the events that have occurred locally and that have left visible signs in the fields, slopes, etc.IC and FIC are based on recognized major components of hydrological connectivity, such as land use and topographic characteristics. The definitions are based on the fact that the material present at a certain location A reaches another location B with a probability that depends on two components: the amount of material present in A and the route from A to B. The distance to B is weighted by the local gradient and the type of land use that the flow encounters on its route to B, while the amount of material present in A depends on the catchment surface, slope gradient and type of land use of said catchment.Although IC and FIC are independent from each other, and are calculated using different equations and different inputs, they complement each other. In fact, their combined use improves IC's accuracy. Hence, connectivity classes can afterward be rated using IC alone.This procedure has been applied in a medium-size watershed in Tuscany (Italy) with the aim of evaluating connectivity, identifying connected sediment sources and verifying the effects of mitigation measures.The proposed indices can be used for monitoring changes in connectivity in areas with high geomorphological or human induced evolution rates.  相似文献
9.
四川省紫色土地区小流域次降雨泥沙输移比探讨   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
选取四川省南部县鹤鸣观小流域与李子口小流域为研究区,在分布式侵蚀产沙模型侵蚀量计算值的基础上,探讨了小流域次降雨泥沙输移比.结果表明,在这两个流域,影响次降雨泥沙输移比的主要因素不同.在鹤鸣观小流域降雨量与径流深是影响泥沙输移比的主要因素,而在李子口流域,其主要因素为径流深与降雨强度.主要原因是鹤鸣观小流域的面积远小于李子口流域的面积,并且次降雨泥沙输移比随着流域面积增加而输移比逐渐减小.通过分析鹤鸣观小流域与李子口小流域次降雨泥沙输移比与降雨量、前期含水量、径流系数的关系得到了两个流域次降雨泥沙输移比公式.  相似文献
10.
Impact of deposition on the enrichment of organic carbon in eroded sediment   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A substantial part of eroded material can be deposited along the runoff pathway. This deposition process may alter the composition of the transported material. Topography- and vegetation-induced deposition processes were examined under laboratory conditions and at the hillslope and watershed scale. The laboratory experiments showed that the enrichment ratio of the specific surface area, ERSSA, of the transported sediment followed an exponential increase with decreasing sediment delivery ratio, SDR, regardless of the type of deposition process. However, the increase in ERSSA with decreasing SDR values was lower than expected. The upper limit of the ERSSA was estimated to be 1.66, which is much lower than the calculated theoretical upper limit of 5.22. This difference can be attributed to the transport of the eroded material in micro-aggregated form. It was also found that the specific surface area, SSA, is a good predictor of organic carbon, OC. The observations on field plots confirmed the results of the laboratory experiments. Measurements at the watershed level indicated that the intensity of the erosion process had a more important influence on sediment enrichment, while the impact of deposition tended to be rather limited. However, sediment monitoring over a longer period is required to reveal the importance of the different erosion processes with regard to OC losses at the field and watershed level.  相似文献
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