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1.
在典型红壤丘陵区平均坡度为10?的坡耕地径流小区 (2 m?5 m) 上进行降雨强度为1.69 mm min-1(大雨强)、1.31 mm min-1(中雨强)和0.64 mm min-1(小雨强)的模拟降雨试验,并对模拟降雨过程中泥沙的迁移规律和泥沙有机碳的流失富集规律进行了研究。研究结果表明:侵蚀作用下泥沙流失量随着降雨强度的增大而增加,并与径流量呈显著的立方关系,径流量是坡耕地土壤流失的重要影响因素;土壤有机碳流失以泥沙结合态为主,泥沙态有机碳流失量占总有机碳流失量的84%以上,最高达到97.6%;泥沙中有机碳富集比随着降雨强度的增大而逐渐减小,有机碳的选择性迁移在低强度降雨条件下表现更为明显;中雨强和小雨强下有机碳的富集比与黏粒的富集比分别呈极显著和显著正相关,而大雨强泥沙有机碳富集比与黏粒富集比没有显著的线性关系。雨强是影响泥沙流失和泥沙有机碳迁移的重要因素。  相似文献
2.
雨滴击溅对耕作层土壤团聚体粒径分布的影响   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为研究不同雨滴直径的降雨对耕作层团聚体的破碎及其粒径分布特征的影响,该文选取4个雨滴直径(2.67~3.79 mm)对耕层土壤(0~20 cm)团聚体进行雨滴击溅试验,每次试验各滴5 000滴,每1 000滴收集1次溅蚀团聚体.结果表明:1)所有收集次序中雨滴直径3.79 mm溅蚀量最大,累积雨滴数为2 000、3 000和4 000时,溅蚀量与雨滴直径均呈显著的指数函数关系.2)各雨滴直径的溅蚀量随粒径减小呈增大-减小-增大趋势,>2 mm粒径的溅蚀量几乎为0,<0.053 mm粒径的溅蚀量随雨滴直径增大而增大.3)相同雨滴直径不同累积雨滴数之间平均重量直径值差异不显著,相同累积雨滴数不同雨滴直径之间平均重量直径值差异不显著(P<0.05).4)不同雨滴直径溅蚀团聚体富集率随粒径变化一致,>1mm粒径溅蚀量团聚体富集率值接近0,0.053~1 mm粒径团聚体富集,>1mm粒径团聚体主要破碎成0.053~1 mm粒径团聚体,且粒级越小,富集率越高.研究可为黄土高原地区水土保持提供理论依据.  相似文献
3.
黄绵土不同形态有机氮径流流失规律   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:2  
利用不同坡度径流小区,在自然降水条件下,研究侵蚀泥沙不同形态有机氮的流失规律,结果表明:在4次产流泥沙中,除氨基糖氮含量减少外,其它有机形态氮均存在增加趋势,以氨态氮含量增加最为显著。随坡度的下降,水解全氮、氨态氮和氨基酸氮含量呈增加趋势;泥沙中水解全氮、氨基酸氮、氨态氮、非酸水解氮均存在不同程度的富集,其富集率随坡度的下降而增大,以氨基酸氮富集程度高,泥沙中氨基糖态氮反而无富集现象存在;当坡度分别为25°、20°、15°、10°和5°时,水解全氮流失量分别为1135.0、763.7、485.5、313.0 和154.4 kg/km2,而氨基酸氮流失量则为234.8、182.7 、121.1、76.8和33.9 kg/km2,占水解全氮的20.6%~24.9%。氨态氮流失量为742.5、503.3 、322.2、208.9、97.4 kg/km2,占水解全氮的63.1%~66.7%。氨基糖氮占酸水解氮1.1%~2.9%。非鉴别氮占水解全氮的5.8%~12.6%。而酸水解氮与非酸水解氮之比分别为1.5、1.5、1.4、1.8和2.3。  相似文献
4.
北方土石山区植株密度对坡面流粒径分选的影响   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
为研究和阐明植株密度对坡面流粒径分选的影响,通过野外10°草地坡面恒流放水冲刷试验,定量研究3种植株密度(0株/m2,20株/m2,60株/m2)在不同流量下(1 m3/h,2 m3/h,3 m3/h)的坡面流粒径分选性规律,从水动力学和侵蚀方式演变角度分析了植株密度对坡面流粒径分选性的影响.试验结果表明:(1)苜蓿草地侵蚀泥沙中细粉粒组分含量最多,其次是粗粉和细砂组分含量,而粗砂和粘粒组分含量最少.固定流量下,随着植株密度的增加,各粒径组分百分比及平均重量粒径(MWD)随时间的波动性增加,在侵蚀泥沙中细颗粒组分(粘粒、细粉粒、粗粉粒,粒径<50 μm)富集比ER相应增加,而粗颗粒组分(细砂、粗砂,粒径>50μm)富集比ER有所减少.固定植株密度条件下,随着流量增加,各粒径组分百分比及MWD随时间的波动性减小,侵蚀泥沙中细颗粒组分富集比ER相应增加,而粗颗粒组分富集比ER增加,细颗粒组分富集比基本大于1,而粗颗粒组分富集比基本小于1.MWD与细颗粒含量呈负相关关系,与粗颗粒含量呈正相关.(2)细沟阶段侵蚀泥沙MWD明显大于片蚀阶段,而粒径分选过程的波动性较小.(3)水流剪切力τ及水流功率ω的增加导致片蚀阶段的缩短和细沟阶段的延长(除植株密度为60株/m2),水流剪切力τ及水流功率ω的增加导致水流侵蚀力的增加,进而水流分离、输移粗颗粒增加.  相似文献
5.
中国5种典型土壤的侵蚀泥沙粒径分布特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
通过天然降雨试验,研究我国5种典型土壤的侵蚀泥沙团粒和单粒粒径分布以及泥沙各级团粒的机械组成特征。2013—2014年汛期(6—9月),监测红壤、紫色土、黄绵土、褐土和黑土径流小区的降雨产流事件,收集侵蚀泥沙样品,利用湿筛法和吸管法测定其团粒和单粒粒径分布;同时,筛选出泥沙各级团粒样品,进一步测定其单粒粒径组成。结果表明:(1)侵蚀泥沙粒径分布是土壤质地和降雨强度综合作用的结果,团粒粒径分布更适合作为表征泥沙输移的指标;(2)5种土壤的侵蚀泥沙皆表现出粉团(0.002~0.05mm)和黏团(0.002mm)的明显富集;(3)在泥沙单粒粒径分布方面,除红壤的粉粒(0.002~0.05mm)和黏粒(0.002mm)有轻微富集外,其余4种土壤的各级单粒均无明显富集;(4)红壤侵蚀泥沙粉团(0.002~0.05mm)中的黏粒含量最多,其余4种土壤侵蚀泥沙机械组成和各级团粒的机械组成均与原土接近。  相似文献
6.
Selective erosion and transport of silt and clay particles from watershed soil surfaces leads to enrichment of suspended sediments by size fractions that are the most effective scavengers of chemical pollutants. Thus, preferential transport of highly reactive size fractions represents a major problem relative to sediment/chemical transport in watersheds, and offsite water quality. The objective of this research was to develop an approach to identify sediment sources at a soil mapping unit scale for the purpose of designing site specific best management practices which affect greater reductions in runoff and erosion losses. Surface soil samples were collected along transects from each of the major 25 mapping units in six subwatersheds of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Suspended sediments were collected from supercritical flumes at the mouth of each subwatershed. Laboratory analyses included basic soil/sediment physical and chemical properties, radioisotopes, and stable carbon isotopes, all by standard methods. Aggregation index (AI) values [100 · (1 − water dispersible clay / total clay)] were taken as an indicator of relative soil erodibility. Potential sediment yield index (PSYI) values were calculated by multiplying percent relative area for individual soil mapping units times (100 − AI). Particle size results indicated that suspended sediments were enriched in clay, relative to the watershed soils, by an average of 1.28. Clay enrichment ratios (ER) were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) and positively correlated with AI, an indication that these two parameters can be equated with erodibility and sediment yield. The PSYI values for the six subwatersheds ranged from 68.0 to 81.7. The stable carbon isotope data for the suspended sediments gave a C3 (shrubs) to C4 plant (grasses) ratio that ranged from 1.06 to 2.25, indicating greater erosion from the more highly erodible, shrub-dominated subwatersheds which also coincided with the highest PSYI values. Correlation coefficients determined individually for PSYI versus clay ER, C3/C4 plant ratios, and multivariate mixing model results were: 0.962 (P ≤ 0.01), 0.905 (P ≤ 0.01), and 0.816 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. These statistically significant relationships support the accuracy of a potential sediment yield index approach for identifying suspended sediment sources at soil mapping unit scales.  相似文献
7.
Erosion studies at multiple scales have shown selectivity in particle transport and delivery can be inferred from nutrient enrichment. Most studies reveal the enrichment ratio (ER) of phosphorus on sediment is high, demonstrating the deposition of coarser particles over the transport pathway. Experimental work on burnt landscapes often takes place at the hillslope plot scale (1–10 m2) by necessity, with inferences made on system sediment and nutrient responses from small areas. Scale effects on generation and delivery need to be considered in such cases. In a study in wet eucalypt forests burnt by wildfire, phosphorus concentration on mineral sediment and organic material at the point (0.01 m2), plot (1–10 m2) and catchment (106 m2) was used to estimate ERs over two scales. The data revealed ERs of 1.5 from point to plot and 2 from plot to catchment. These ratios are relatively low compared with other studies. We suggest the principal reason is short transport pathways which act to decrease deposition, due to the spatial heterogeneity of post-burn soil hydraulic properties. The association of total phosphorus with mineral material was slightly higher than with organic matter. The study suggests that using plot scale hillslope experiments to infer sediment and nutrient loss after wildfire would have overestimated losses by around 100%.  相似文献
8.
A substantial part of eroded material can be deposited along the runoff pathway. This deposition process may alter the composition of the transported material. Topography- and vegetation-induced deposition processes were examined under laboratory conditions and at the hillslope and watershed scale. The laboratory experiments showed that the enrichment ratio of the specific surface area, ERSSA, of the transported sediment followed an exponential increase with decreasing sediment delivery ratio, SDR, regardless of the type of deposition process. However, the increase in ERSSA with decreasing SDR values was lower than expected. The upper limit of the ERSSA was estimated to be 1.66, which is much lower than the calculated theoretical upper limit of 5.22. This difference can be attributed to the transport of the eroded material in micro-aggregated form. It was also found that the specific surface area, SSA, is a good predictor of organic carbon, OC. The observations on field plots confirmed the results of the laboratory experiments. Measurements at the watershed level indicated that the intensity of the erosion process had a more important influence on sediment enrichment, while the impact of deposition tended to be rather limited. However, sediment monitoring over a longer period is required to reveal the importance of the different erosion processes with regard to OC losses at the field and watershed level.  相似文献
9.
通过模拟降雨试验和回归分析,研究了洋河流域坡耕地径流沉积物对磷素的富集特征及其生物有效性,结果表明:洋河流域坡耕地径流沉积物对磷有明显的富集作用,富集系数在1.33~1.43之间;沉积物中磷的形态以无机磷为主,平均占全磷的75.23%,对不同结合态的磷富集程度有明显差异;不同土壤条件下,径流沉积物中各结合态磷的生物有效性不同,Fe-P对沉积物中NaOH-P的贡献率最大.  相似文献
10.
Field rainfall simulations were conducted in 2002 and 2005 to study the effects of different soil management practices on the total phosphorous (TP) and Olsen-P losses by soil erosion and redistribution along a 15 m long slope in Luoyang, Henan province, China. Field plots were set up in 2001 and included the following soil management practices: subsoiling with mulch (SSM), no-till with mulch (NTM), reduced tillage (RT), and a conventional tillage control (CT). The results showed that there were no significant differences in TP and Olsen-P content in the sediment load between different plots after 6 years uniform tillage practices. The enrichment of TP and Olsen-P at the lower slope showed a clear redistribution along the slope. Effects of tillage practices on the temporal pattern of the enrichment ratio (ER) of TP and Olsen-P was not uniform. ERTP values were initially high and diminished after a short period of time and leveled to the end of the rainfall test in CT and RT plots, but remained ≥ 1. The ER of Olsen-P at the end of rainfall simulation showed a significant difference when compared to the initial stage, 0.78 to 1.60, respectively. However, the temporal loss rate of TP and Olsen-P showed a similar pattern because it was more depending on the sediment loss rate than on the concentration in the sediment. SSM resulted in 96% less TP and Olsen-P erosion loss compared to CT in 2002. Also, SSM showed the highest reduction in TP and Olsen-P loss after 4 years consistent practice. RT reduced TP and Olsen-P loss by 30%, although the runoff reduction was not significant. NTM was the best alternative with respect to TP and Olsen-P conservation, when considering its lower operational costs.  相似文献
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