首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   169篇
  国内免费   5篇
  完全免费   64篇
     238篇
  2021年   4篇
  2020年   7篇
  2019年   2篇
  2018年   6篇
  2017年   15篇
  2016年   14篇
  2015年   7篇
  2014年   12篇
  2013年   12篇
  2012年   13篇
  2011年   24篇
  2010年   15篇
  2009年   13篇
  2008年   21篇
  2007年   15篇
  2006年   12篇
  2005年   12篇
  2004年   7篇
  2003年   4篇
  2002年   3篇
  2000年   3篇
  1999年   2篇
  1998年   1篇
  1997年   2篇
  1996年   1篇
  1995年   4篇
  1994年   3篇
  1991年   2篇
  1990年   1篇
  1987年   1篇
排序方式: 共有238条查询结果,搜索用时 34 毫秒
1.
四川盆地紫色母岩养分风化释放   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed in the Jurassic period, Shaximiao (J2s), Suining (J3s), and Penglaizhen (J3P), as well as one type formed in the Cretaceous period, the Chengqiangyan group (K1c), were used in this study. Results showed that the soil formation rate was in the range from 11.2 to 19.6 mm every year, and rock weathering was in the order of J3s 〉 J3P 〉 J2s 〉 K1c. Because more rock surface was exposed to sunlight and rainfall in field conditions, pot weathering was slower than field weathering. Nutrient release rates increased with rock weathering and was in the order similar to that of rock weathering: J3P 〉 J3s 〉 J2s 〉 K1c. Potassium release was the most important in all rocks; after 2 years of weathering, 19.4% to 46.9% of K was released from the initial parent rocks, which suggested that K release from weathering could meet most of the crop K requirement in purplish soils. Thus, rapid release of nutrients from weathering of purplish rocks was key to nutrient replenishment and fertility of purplish soils.  相似文献
2.
The Ardesen area is prone to landslides because of the climate conditions, geologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of the region. As in previous years, in 2001 due to heavy rainfall there were many landslides resulting in damage and human casualties. There is still a great danger of further landslides in the region. Therefore, it is vitally important to prepare a landslide susceptibility map of the region. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the statistical index (Wi), and weighting factor (Wf) methods were used to produce and later compare three susceptibility maps. For this purpose, thematic layers including landslide inventory, lithology-weathering, slope, aspect, land cover, distance to stream, drainage density, and distance to road were used. In this study area, 98% of landslides occurred in highly or completely weathered units. Lithology-weathering, land cover, and slope data layers were found to be important factors in the study area. To confirm the practicality of the three susceptibility maps were compared with a landslide activity map containing 16 active landslide zones. The outcome was that the active landslide zones do not completely fit into the high and very high susceptibility classes. But 81.3% of these landslide zones fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the AHP method while this is 62.5% in the case of Wi method, and 68.8% with the Wf method. In spite of the results obtained in this study, the development of a susceptibility map is usually determined by the needs and available resources. The results showed that the AHP method gave a more realistic picture of the actual distribution of landslide susceptibility, than the Wi and Wf methods.  相似文献
3.
陕西关中地区参考作物蒸发蒸腾量变化及原因   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
根据关中地区30个气象站41年的气象资料,采用FAO推荐的Penman-Monteith公式计算参考作物蒸发蒸腾量(ET0),分析了陕西关中地区ET0的变化及原因,结果表明,从长期来看,关中地区ET0在减少趋势的基础上表现出周期性变化,从阶段性来看,1980年之前和之后则主要表现为增加趋势。关中地区年内ET0的最大值在1980年前主要出现在6月,1980年以后则主要出现在6月和7月,且以7月为多;1980年后5~8月ET0所占比值在减少,但仍在全年中占50%以上。关中地区平均气温、最高气温和最低气温表现为增加趋势,风速、日照时数和相对湿度表现为减少趋势。关中地区ET0与平均气温、最高气温和最低气温表现为不显著正相关,与风速和日照时数表现为显著正相关,与水汽压表现为显著负相关,与年降水量表现为不显著负相关,近一半地区的ET0与年蒸发量显著正相关。对关中地区ET0影响显著的气象因子的顺序为:风速〉日照时数〉水汽压〉年蒸发量。即风速和日照时数的减少趋势是引起关中地区ET0降低趋势的主要原因。  相似文献
4.
GREENSPAN茎流法对玉米蒸腾规律的研究   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
以盆栽玉米为试材、称重法为基准,验证了GREEN SPAN茎流法测量作物蒸腾量的可行性。茎流法与称重法两者测值的绝对误差为0.20~4.56 g/(株.h),相对误差为2.03%~10.42%,表明茎流计所测得的玉米茎流速率可准确的表示作物蒸腾速率。以此为基础,探讨了不同天气下GREEN SAPPAN茎流法实测玉米茎流的日变化规律:白天玉米茎流随太阳辐射及天气变化呈规律性变化,晚间有较细微而稳定的茎流。晴好天气,玉米茎流的日变化呈单峰曲线,多云或阴天天气,为不对称的“M”型,且茎流的启动时间存在一个受天气和太阳辐射变化共同影响的临界值。灰色关联度分析表明,晴好天气下,太阳辐射是影响蒸腾速率的主要因素;多云或多云转晴天气下,气温和相对湿度成为影响蒸腾速率的主要因素,太阳辐射的作用相对降低。  相似文献
5.
广东省崩岗形成机理与类型   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:9  
崩岗是我国南方一种重要的侵蚀类型,广东省的特点是降水量多、暴雨集中、土质粗、抗冲抗蚀性弱、人为活动强烈。崩岗就是在径流冲刷、崩塌和滑坡、水蚀和重力侵蚀相互作用下形成的。崩岗分为四种类型三个发育阶段。  相似文献
6.
延安日光温室冬季低温冻害天气分析与预报   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:12  
通过对延安市强降温发生过程中温室内外温度的对比分析,得出当环境气温降到-20℃以下时,即使采取防寒措施,温室内温度也会降至0℃以下,喜温作物可能受冻。因此,以最低气温-20℃作为温室可能发生冻害的指标,利用30年实测气象资料,对延安地区进行了冻害区域划分;根据环流形势进行不同方式的预报服务。  相似文献
7.
Background, Aim and Scope  Unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons, containing many thousands of compounds which cannot be resolved by conventional gas chromatography (GC), are common contaminants of sediments but little is known of their potential to affect sediment-dwelling organisms. Evidence exists for reduced health status in mussels, arising from aqueous exposure to aromatic UCM components acting through a narcotic mode of action. However, UCM contaminants in sediments may not be sufficiently bioavailable to elicit toxic effects. The aim of our study was therefore to measure the sublethal effects of chronic exposure to model UCM-dominated oils at environmentally realistic concentrations and compare this to effects produced by a UCM containing weathered crude oil. A further aim was to determine which, if any, fractions of the oils were responsible for any observed toxicity. Materials and Methods  Whole oils were spiked into estuarine sediment to give nominal concentrations of 500 μg g−1 dry weight. Juveniles of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator were exposed to the contaminated sediment for 35 days and their survival, growth rate and reproductive success quantified. Using an effect-directed fractionation approach, the oils were fractionated into aliphatic and two aromatic fractions by open column chromatography and their toxicity assessed by further chronic exposures using juvenile C. volutator. Results  The growth rates of amphipods were reduced following exposure to the oils although this was only statistically significant for the weathered oil; reproductive success was reduced by all oil exposures. Sediment spiked with UCM fractions also caused reduced growth and reproduction but no particular fraction was found to be responsible for the observed toxicity. Survivorship was not affected by any oil or fraction. Discussion  The study showed that chronic exposure to sediments contaminated by UCM-dominated oils could have population level effects on amphipods. The observed effects could not be explained by hydrocarbons resolved by conventional GC and effects were similar for both UCM-dominated and weathered oils. All of the fractions appeared to contribute to the observed effects; this is in contrast to previous research which had shown that an aliphatic UCM did not cause adverse effects in mussels. Conclusions  To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate population-level effects arising from exposure to sediments contaminated by realistic environmental concentrations of UCM hydrocarbons. The results are consistent with many compounds, at very low individual concentrations, contributing towards the overall observed toxicity. Recommendations  Risk assessments of contaminated sediments should take into account the contribution towards the potential for toxic effects from UCM hydrocarbons. Studies into sediment contamination should report both aliphatic and aromatic UCM concentrations to aid risk assessments. ESS-Submission Editor: Henner Hollert (hollert@uni-heidelberg.de) This paper has been developed from a presentation at SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting 2006 held at the The Hague, The Netherlands.  相似文献
8.
毛乌素沙地沙木蓼茎干液流规律研究   总被引:5,自引:4,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
植物的茎干液流量表征其蒸腾耗水量,能够准确反映单株植物的蒸腾作用和水分利用状况.利用Dynamax茎流测量系统和自动气象站对毛乌素沙地人工灌木树种沙木蓼的茎干液流变化及其周围的环境因子进行观测.研究结果表明,(1)沙木蓼茎干液流日变化呈多峰线型,昼夜变化明显,夜间仍有低值液流;晴天液流速率较大,变化幅度也大;阴雨天液流速率变化幅度较小但波动剧烈.(2)整个生长季沙木蓼总液流量为428.83 L,5-10月沙木蓼日平均液流量为2.639 5 L/d.(3)沙木蓼液流速率变化趋势与环境因子变化趋势基本吻合.相关分析表明,影响沙木蓼茎干液流变化的主要环境因子为太阳总辐射、空气温度、空气相对湿度和风速.  相似文献
9.
土壤重金属复合污染的化学固定修复研究   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
张丽洁  张 瑜  刘德辉 《土壤》2009,41(3):420-424
本文研究糠醛渣、磷矿粉、风化煤3 种修复剂对重金属复合污染土壤的化学固定修复效果.结果表明:糠醛渣、磷矿粉、风化煤3 种修复剂都可一定程度地降低复合污染土壤中的Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd含量,其中以风化煤降低土壤有效态Zn、Cu的效果较好,在风化煤添加量为80 g/kg时土壤有效态Zn的含量降低了37.22%,土壤有效态Cu的含量降低了31.22%;磷矿粉处理修复Pb的效果比糠醛渣、风化煤好,在磷矿粉添加量为80 g/kg时,土壤有效态Pb的含量降低了23.79%;3 种修复剂都能显著降低土壤有效态Cd,在磷矿粉添加量为40 g/kg时,土壤有效态Cd的含量降低最显著,较对照降低了83.09%.在本试验条件下,3 种修复剂对4 种重金属复合污染土壤的修复效果,以Cd 较好,其次是Zn,对Pb的修复效果较差.  相似文献
10.
煤基混合物对复垦土壤的改良及苜蓿增产效果   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
以煤基材料综合利用为目的,根据风化煤、煤矸石和粉煤灰的理化性质,按照特定质量比混合,比例为:风化煤∶煤矸石∶粉煤灰=5∶1∶4,并加入一定量的化学肥料,用于矿区复垦土壤的改良。煤基混合物含有丰富的养分。通过盆栽试验确定,复垦土壤中添加适量的煤基混合物后,养分含量有了显著提高,盆栽试验表明苜蓿生物量比对照提高约一倍,粗蛋白含量亦显著提高。利用煤基混合物改良土壤可以避免单纯施用化肥造成的土壤板结等问题,提高了矿区废弃物的综合利用率。  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号