首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   35篇
  完全免费   15篇
     50篇
  2020年   2篇
  2019年   2篇
  2017年   1篇
  2016年   7篇
  2015年   4篇
  2014年   3篇
  2013年   4篇
  2012年   3篇
  2011年   6篇
  2010年   2篇
  2009年   6篇
  2008年   2篇
  2007年   2篇
  2006年   3篇
  2005年   1篇
  2000年   1篇
  1992年   1篇
排序方式: 共有50条查询结果,搜索用时 42 毫秒
1.
用最小可检测差异技术评估耕作方式对土壤C固定的影响   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Three long-term field trials in humid regions of Canada and the USA were used to evaluate the influence of soil depth and sample numbers on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in no-tillage (NT) and moldboard plow (MP) corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production systems. The first trial was conducted on a Maryhill silt loam (Typic Hapludalf) at Elora, Ontario, Canada, the second on a Brookston clay loam (Typic Argiaquoll) at Woodslee, Ontario, Canada, and the third on a Thorp silt loam (Argiaquic Argialboll) at Urbana, Illinois, USA. No-tillage led to significantly higher SOC concentrations in the top 5 cm compared to MP at all 3 sites. However, NT resulted in significantly lower SOC in sub-surface soils as compared to MP at Woodslee (10-20 cm, P =0.01) and Urbana (20-30 cm, P 〈 0.10). No-tillage had significantly more SOC storage than MP at the Elora site (3.3 Mg C ha^-1) and at the Woodslee site (6.2 Mg C ha^-1) on an equivalent mass basis (1 350 Mg ha^-1 soil equivalent mass). Similarly, NT had greater SOC storage than MP at the Urbana site (2.7 Mg C ha^-1) on an equivalent mass basis of 675 Mg ha^-1 soil. However, these differences disappeared when the entire plow layer was evaluated for both the Woodslee and Urbana sites as a result of the higher SOC concentrations in MP than in NT at depth. Using the minimum detectable difference technique, we observed that up to 1 500 soil sample per tillage treatment comparison will have to be collected and analyzed for the Elora and Woodslee sites and over 40 soil samples per tillage treatment comparison for the Urbana to statistically separate significant differences in the SOC contents of sub-plow depth soils. Therefore, it is impracticable, and at the least prohibitively expensive, to detect tillage-induced differences in soil C beyond the plow layer in various soils.  相似文献
2.
黄土高原刺槐林对土壤养分时空分布的影响   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
以不同树龄刺槐纯林林地和撂荒地作对比,研究了黄土高原刺槐人工林对土壤养分时空分布特征的影响。结果表明,刺槐林地土壤有机质、pH值、全氮、有效氮、有效磷、速效钾、交换性钙和交换性盐基总量随刺槐树龄增加无明确变化规律,土壤全磷和交换性镁含量则呈现波动性变化;刺槐林地土壤有机质、全氮、有效氮含量随土壤深度增加按幂函数衰减,有效磷含量有递减趋势,土壤全磷、速效钾、交换性钙、交换性镁和交换性盐基总量随土壤深度增加无明显变化规律,而土壤pH随深度呈波动性变化;与撂荒地相比,刺槐林地土壤有机质、全氮、有效氮、有效磷、速效钾、交换性钙、交换性镁含量及交换性盐基总量分别增加21.6%~96.8%,34.3%~160.1%,191.5%~238.4%,2.1%~24.1%,19.82%~92.71%,64.2%~80.0%,25.0%~46.5%和67.2%~89.5%,表明刺槐林对改善土壤养分状况具有重要作用。  相似文献
3.
单室结构土壤微生物燃料电池发电性能的影响因子研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
There is limited information about the factors that affect the power generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using soil organic matter as a fuel source. We examined the effect of soil and water depths, and temperature on the performance of soil MFCs with anode being embedded in the flooded soil and cathode in the overlaying water. Results showed that the MFC with 5 cm deep soil and 3 cm overlaying water exhibited the highest open circuit voltage of 562 mV and a power density of 0.72 mW m-2. The ohmic resistance increased with more soil and water. The polarization resistance of cathode increased with more soil while that of anode increased with more water. During the 30 d operation, the cell voltage positively correlated with temperature and reached a maximum of 162 mV with a 500 ft external load. After the operation, the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from the soil and anode was sequenced. The bacteria in the soil were more diverse than those adhere to the anode where the bacteria were mainly affiliated to Eseherichia coli and Deltaproteobacteria. In summary, the two bacterial groups may generate electricity and the electrical properties were affected by temperature and the depth of soil and water.  相似文献
4.
陈 贵  陈 莹  施卫明 《土壤》2013,45(5):809-814
为了探明太湖地区氮肥施用对水稻不同生长期稻田土壤氮素渗漏的影响,利用渗漏管进行了原位监测。结果表明:①土壤各层(20 ~ 40、40 ~ 60、60 ~ 80和80 ~ 120 cm)渗漏液中铵态氮(NH4+-N)的平均浓度在水稻分蘖期较高,而硝态氮(-N)和全氮(TN-N)的平均浓度则在苗期相对较高。渗漏液中NH4+-N和TN-N浓度随土壤深度增加基本呈降低趋势。②以土壤80 ~ 120 cm深处渗漏量为进入地下水的氮素渗漏量,发现TN-N渗漏量占施肥量的比例为1.69% ~ 2.04%。分蘖期的NH4+-N渗漏量相对较多,而苗期-N和TN-N相对较多,总TN-N渗漏量中NH4+-N和-N基本无差异。③氮肥用量增加降了氮肥利用效率,加剧了土壤各层氮素渗漏风险。当施氮量由N 200增至270 kg/hm2时,氮肥表观利用率下降7.14%,下渗至地下水中的TN-N增加12.3%。  相似文献
5.
探地雷达在土层厚度调查中的试验研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
土层厚度是评价土壤质量的一个重要指标,如何快捷、准确获取土层厚度及相关特性一直是土壤、土地、水利、农学等领域专家关注的问题之一。早在20世纪70年代末期,美国的佛罗里达州就开始用探地雷达(Ground Penetrating Radar,简称GPR)等地球物理技术来研究农业土壤性质的变异性。GPR监测可分直接和间接应用两种情形。  相似文献
6.
土壤厚度对天然草地植被盖度和生物量的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
土壤厚度是土壤肥力存在和植物生长的重要物质基础.本文调查了内蒙古东部地区多伦、锡林浩特和巴林左旗3个长期保护天然草地的土壤厚度和植被盖度等植物生长状况.结果表明,天然草地植被盖度、地上生物量和高度随土壤厚度的增加而增大.当土壤厚度小于20 cm时,植被盖度和地上生物量随土壤厚度的降低急剧减小,当土壤厚度小于10 cm时,植被类型为非地带性植被,盖度小于30%,地上生物量小于150 g/m2;当土壤厚度大于20 cm后,植被盖度一般大于80%,地上生物量接近或大于200 g/m2,而且土壤厚度大于20 cm后植被盖度和地上生物量随土壤厚度的继续增大变化平缓.研究区地带性天然草地植被正常生长的最低土壤厚度为20 cm左右.  相似文献
7.
Soil microbial biomass and community structures are commonly used as indicators for soil quality and fertility. A investigation was performed to study the effects of long-term natural restoration, cropping, and bare fallow managements on the soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in depths of 0--10, 20--30, and 40--50 cm in a black soil (Mollisol). Microbial biomass was estimated from chloroform fumigation-extraction, and bacterial community structures were determined by analysis of 16S rDNA using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Experimental results showed that microbial biomass significantly declined with soil depth in the managements of restoration and cropping, but not in the bare fallow. DGGE profiles indicated that the band number in top 0--10 cm soils was less than that in depth of 20--30 or 40--50 cm. These suggested that the microbial population was high but the bacterial community structure was simple in the topsoil. Cluster and principle component analysis based on DGGE banding patterns showed that the bacterial community structure was affected by soil depth more primarily than by managements, and the succession of bacterial community as increase of soil depth has a similar tendency in the three managements. Fourteen predominating DGGE bands were excised and sequenced, in which 6 bands were identified as the taxa of Verrucomicrobia, 2 bands as Actinobacteria, 2 bands as α-Proteobacteria, and the other 4 bands as δ-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Nitrospira, and unclassified bacteria. In addition, the sequences of 11 DGGE bands were closely related to uncultured bacteria. Thus, the bacterial community structure in black soil was stable, and the predominating bacterial groups were uncultured.  相似文献
8.
明确作物产量对水分亏缺的响应是实施非充分灌溉的科学基础。该文在华北气候下,通过设置不同灌水次数造成处理间的土壤供水差异,探讨了大田冬小麦籽粒产量与不同生育时期、不同土层深度的土壤水分之间的关系,系统分析了影响小麦产量的水分阈值,提出了适宜的土壤水分诊断深度。结果表明:不论从土壤水分动态、还是从全生育期平均水分来看,亏水处理与充分供水对照在浅层土壤的水分差异最大,且随土层深度增加而减小。0~0.4、0~0.8、0~1.2 m的水分差异分别在19.7%~36.5%、9.3%~21.7%和2.9%~9.7%之间。此外,土壤水分变异程度随土层深度增加而减小。不同生育期、不同深度的水分与小麦产量关系多为开口向下的抛物线函数,但函数关系的显著程度随生育期及土层深度而变化,其中0~0.4 m的水分与产量关系最为密切。影响小麦产量的水分阈值随生育进程呈下降趋势。自拔节孕穗至乳熟期,0~0.4、0~0.6、0~1.0、0~1.2及0~1.6 m的水分阈值由田间持水率的83.1%~95%下降到72.3%~90.0%。依据处理间土壤水分动态差异、全生育期平均水分差异、不同土层的水分变异程度、土壤水分与小麦产量关系显著性程度4方面的分析,该文提出0~0.4 m为适宜的水分亏缺诊断深度,相应在拔节孕穗、抽穗、开花、灌浆初期、灌浆中期、灌浆后期、乳熟期的水分阈值分别为95.0%、98.4%、79.9%、73.7%、88.6%、79.6%和75.7%。该结果对小麦亏缺灌溉管理具有实际指导意义。  相似文献
9.
Soil (regolith) depth is a crucial input for modeling earth surface phenomena. However, most studies ignore its spatial variability. Techniques that map the spatial variability of soil depth are of three types: (1) physically-based; (2) empirico-statistical from environmental correlates; and (3) interpolation from point observations. In an anthropogenic landscape, soil depth does not depend primarily on natural processes, making it difficult to apply a physically-based approach. The present study compares empirico-statistical methods with geostatistical methods for predicting soil depth in such a landscape: Aruvikkal catchment (9.5 km2) in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Regression kriging applied on blocks of 20 m by 20 m using the environmental covariates elevation, slope, aspect, curvature, wetness index, land use and distance from streams, proved to be the best predictor of soil depth. This model explains 52% of the variability of soil depth in the catchment; with a prediction variance of 0.05 to 0.19. A Gaussian simulation was attempted for a more realistic visualization of the depth, as opposed to the smooth kriging prediction. The most important explanatory variable of soil depth in this landscape is land use, as expected from the strong human intervention.  相似文献
10.
不同植被覆盖类型黑土水分动态变化特征   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
采用中子水分仪定位监测方法,研究黑土区平水年大豆地、草地和裸地3种覆盖类型土壤水分变化特征.结果表明:土壤水分空间垂直动态变化随深度增加而降低,基于变异系数(CV)将土壤水分垂直变化分为4层,即水分速变层、活跃层、次活跃层和相对稳定层.不同覆盖类型下,土壤水循环深度依次为大豆地>草地>裸地,土壤水循环强度依次为草地>大豆地>裸地;3种覆盖类型的土壤剖面含水量在作物生长季节内呈增长型变化特征,裸地0~20 cm土层各时段土壤含水量均高于草地和大豆地;30 cm土层以下土壤水分含量依次为草地>裸地>大豆地.该区土壤储水量主要受降雨调控,3种植被覆盖类型下,土壤水分的总蒸散量依次为草地>大豆地>裸地.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号