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1.
A comparison was made between two soil climosequences on north- and south-facing slopes in northern Italy to determine the influence of slope aspect on soil processes. The climosequences span an elevational gradient ranging from moderate (1200 m a.s.l.) to high alpine (2420 m a.s.l.) climate zones on surfaces having an age of about 15 000 years. The soils were investigated with respect to organic C, oxalate and dithionite extractable Fe, Al and Si, elemental losses (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Al, Si, Mn) and clay minerals. The stocks of soil org. C as well as of oxalate-extractable Fe and Al was greatest in the subalpine zone near the timberline. There are no clear differences in organic C content between the soils on north- and south-facing sites. Fe-oxalate and to a lesser extent Alo-stocks were, however, greater on north-facing sites, indicating that weathering is greater there. Eluviation and illuviation of Al and Fe within the soil profile, typical for podzolisation, was more distinctly expressed on the N slopes. The probability of ITM (Imogolite-type-material) formation in the soil seemed to be greater on south-facing sites. On the north-facing sites, element leaching was most intense in the subalpine zone close to the timberline while on the south-facing sites this was only the case for the base cations. The N slopes exhibited higher leaching of elements which generally indicates a higher weathering intensity. On south-facing sites, typical podzolisation processes were measurable only above 2000 m a.s.l. The development of smectites is also a reflection of the weathering intensity; smectite was discernible in the surface horizon at all sites on N slopes but the highest amount was detected in the sub-alpine climate zone. For the south-facing sites only in the alpine climate zone could smectite be detected. Higher temperatures and an increased number of freeze-thaw cycles on south-facing slopes should theoretically enhance rates of chemical weathering. This could, however, not be confirmed with our measurements. The degree of chemical weathering increases from the south- to the north-facing sites that are characterised by lower temperatures, lower evapotranspiration and consequently by a higher humidity. Although precipitation in Alpine regions is abundant, the availability and flux of water through the soil is the prime factor in weathering intensity.  相似文献
2.
水溶性有机碳在各种粘土底土中的吸附:土壤性质的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Clay-rich subsoils are added to sandy soils to improve crop yield and increase organic carbon (C) sequestration; however, little is known about the influence of clay subsoil properties on organic C sorption and desorption. Batch sorption experiments were conducted with nine clay subsoils with a range of properties. The clay subsoils were shaken for 16 h at 4 oC with water-extractable organic C (WEOC, 1 224 g C L-1) from mature wheat residue at a soil to extract ratio of 1:10. After removal of the supernatant, the residual pellet was shaken with deionised water to determine organic C desorption. The WEOC sorption was positively correlated with smectite and illite contents, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and total organic C, but negatively correlated with kaolinite content. Desorption of WEOC expressed as a percentage of WEOC sorbed was negatively correlated with smectite and illite contents, CEC, total and exchangeable calcium (Ca) concentrations and clay content, but positively correlated with kaolinite content. The relative importance of these properties varied among soil types. The soils with a high WEOC sorption capacity had medium CEC and their dominant clay minerals were smectite and illite. In contrast, kaolinite was the dominant clay mineral in the soils with a low WEOC sorption capacity and low-to-medium CEC. However, most soils had properties which could increase WEOC sorption as well as those that could decrease WEOC sorption. The relative importance of properties increasing or decreasing WEOC sorption varied with soils. The soils with high desorption had a low total Ca concentration, low-to-medium CEC and low clay content, whereas the soils with low desorption were characterised by medium-to-high CEC and smectite and illite were the dominant clay minerals. We conclude that WEOC sorption and desorption depend not on a single property but rather a combination of several properties of the subsoils in this study.  相似文献
3.
As a consequence of global warming, additional areas will become ice-free and subject to weathering and soil formation. The most evident soil changes in the Alps will occur in proglacial areas where young soils will continuously develop due to glacier retreat. Little is known about the initial stages of weathering and soil formation, i.e. during the first decades of soil genesis. In this study, we investigated clay minerals formation during a time span 0-150 years in the proglacial area of Morteratsch (Swiss Alps). The soils developed on granitic till and were Lithic Leptosols.Mineralogical measurements of the clay (< 2 μm) and fine silt fraction (2-32 μm) were carried out using XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform). Fast formation and transformation mechanisms were measured in the clay fraction. The decreasing proportion of trioctahedral phases with time confirmed active chemical weathering. Since the start of soil formation, smectite was actively formed. Some smectite (low charge) and vermiculite (high charge) was however already present in the parent material. Main source of smectite formation was biotite, hornblende and probably plagioclase. Furthermore, irregularly and regularly interstratified clay minerals (mica-HIV or mica-vermiculite) were formed immediately after the start of moraine exposure to weathering. In addition, hydroxy-interlayered smectite (HIS) as a transitory weathering product from mica to smectite was detected. Furthermore, since the start of soil evolution, kaolinite was progressively formed. In the silt fraction, only little changes could be detected; i.e. some formation of an interstratified mica-HIV or mica-vermiculite phase.The detected clay mineral formation and transformation mechanisms within this short time span confirmed the high reactivity of freshly exposed sediments, even in a cryic environment.  相似文献
4.
The original smectite clay mineral has been collected from Amazon region, Brazil. The compound 2-aminomethylpyridine (AMP) was anchored onto Amazon smectite surface by heterogeneous route. The natural (SMC) and modified (SMCAMP) smectite samples were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, and silicon-29 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains, the metal adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than the precursor. The ability of these materials to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms at room temperature and pH 4.0. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 1.16 and 1.87 mmol g− 1 for SMC and SMCAMP, respectively. In order to evaluate the clay samples as adsorbents in dynamic system, a glass column was fulfilled with clay samples (1.0 g) and it was fed with 2.0 × 10− 4 mol dm− 3 Cr(VI) at pH 4.0. The energetic effects caused by metal cation adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such Cr(VI)–nitrogen interactions.  相似文献
5.
Phosphate retaining properties of macropore wall materials may influence the extent of phosphate leaching via preferential flow. Phosphate sorption to soil matrix material has been compared with sorption to fracture wall materials consisting of inner iron-oxide depleted albic coatings rimmed by reddish iron-oxide enriched quasicoatings. The latter contains 15 times as much Fe oxide, 2 times as much Al (hydr)oxide and 5–6 times as much total P than the albic material, which represent the most P-depleted material in the profile. Oxalate extractable P (Po) amounts to of the total P contents of the samples. Smectite predominates in the fracture walls and acid subsoils, but has partly transformed into hydroxy-interlayered smectite (HIS) in the upper limed soil horizons. Langmuir parameters derived from phosphate sorption isotherms show no correlation for sorption to whole soil samples and the corresponding clay fractions. The phosphate sorption capacity at a threshold equilibrium concentration of 10 μM (Padst (10 μM)) is measured as the content of Po plus the amount of phosphate sorbed during 7 days, and can be related to Alo+Feo: Padst (10 μM)=(0.0404±0.0046)·(Alo+Feo)***+3.569. The Padst (10 μM) values vary between 4 and 14 mmol P kg−1, lowest in the albic fracture walls and highest in the iron enriched quasi-coatings. The sorption capacity of the metal oxide free clay does not appear to correlate with smectite or HIS contents. In total, the clay fraction contributes with about 50% of the whole soil sorption capacity in agreement with 40–60% of the total soil Alo+Feo being present in the clay fraction. At a solution phosphate concentration of 10 μM, the Ap horizon is found to be almost phosphate saturated whereas subsoil horizons including the fractures have phosphate saturations ≤50% and, hence, can strongly sorb P. The low phosphate saturation of fracture walls indicates that they do not act as major sinks of phosphate-rich solutions from topsoil horizons, either due to kinetic constraints, or due to a flow pattern not allowing P-rich solution to percolate fractures.  相似文献
6.
Weathering of a calcalkaline granite was studied in the south of Galicia (NW Spain) where the average annual precipitation is 1400 mm and the average annual temperature is 12°C. The original rock contains perthitic K-feldspars, plagioclases with inclusions of muscovite and opaque minerals, quartz and chloritized biotite, with apatite, zircon, sphene and opaques as accessories. In the saprolite the structure of the rock is preserved, the plagioclases show up to grade 4 weathering and the biotites, between 2 and 3. Weathering in quartz and potassium feldspar crystals is manifested only by fracturing. Biotite changes following the parallel linear model and its weathering products are interstratified biotite–vermiculite and iron oxyhydroxides. The plagioclases change to a microgranular material by pseudomorphic transformation. This material, which substitutes the plagioclase, includes small clearly delimited units which retain zones with the optic characteristics of muscovite. X-ray diffraction analyses of microsamples show that they are formed by 1:1 diocthaedral phyllosilicate, smectite and a small quantity of mica. From these facts we concluded that smectite is formed inside the plagioclase crystals, and probably originates from the inclusions of muscovite contained in these crystals, as it is suggested by the microscopic study which shows the increase in volume which occurs when the crystals of muscovite are transformed.  相似文献
7.
The clay minerals in Podzols and podzolic soils developed under coniferous forests in the Subarctic and Cool-temperate zones are characterized by the predominance of smectite and/or mica-smectite interstratified minerals in the eluvial horizons and chlorite-vermiculite intergrade in the illuvial horizons. A large amount of vermiculite is present in the eluvial horizons of some podzolic soils in the Cool-temperate zone. The illuvial horizons of these soils also contain free iron oxides such as goethite. Imogolite and allophane are present in the illuvial horizons of several soils derived from volcanic ashes. It is suggested that the critical bioclimate for the release of interlayered aluminum from the 2:1-type minerals lies between the Cool- and Warm-temperate zone. In the eluvial horizons of Podzols and podzolic soils, mica minerals and chlorite, as primary minerals, have been transformed to smectite through the pedogenic process. Based on previous studies on the structure and degradation of the dioctahedral mica minerals, it is considered that smectite is transformed from 1M-type mica minerals directly, and from 2M-type mica minerals via mica-smectite interstratifled minerals. The formation of a smectite lattice in the eluvial horizon should be a clay-mineralogical indicator of podzolization.  相似文献
8.
Addition of clay-rich subsoil to sandy soil results in heterogeneous soil with clay peds (2-mm) or finely ground (< 2 mm) clay soil (FG),which may affect the nutrient availability.The aim of this study was to assess the effect of clay soil particle size (FG or peds) and properties on nutrient availability and organic C binding in sandy soil after addition of residues with low (young kikuyu grass,KG) or high (faba bean,FB) C/N ratio.Two clay soils with high and low smectite percentage,clay and exchangeable Fe and Al were added to a sandy soil at a rate of 20% (weight/weight) either as FG or peds.Over 45 d,available N and P as well as microbial biomass N and P concentrations and cumulative respiration were greater in soils with residues of KG than FB.For soils with KG residues,clay addition increased available N and initial microbial biomass C and N concentrations,but decreased cumulative respiration and P availability compared to sandy soil without clay.Differences in measured parameters between clay type and size were inconsistent and varied with time except the increase in total organic C in the < 53 μm fraction during the experiment,which was greater for soils with FG than with peds.We concluded that the high exchangeable Fe and Al concentrations in the low-smectite clay soil can compensate a lower clay concentration and proportion of smectite with respect to binding of organic matter and nutrients.  相似文献
9.
This investigation was done to determine the release of potassium (K) from five calcareous soils of southern Iran using 0.025 M CaCl2, HCl and citric acid during six successive extractions and to study the K fixation capacity of the soils after K release experiment. Mineralogical study indicated that Vertisols and Mollisols were dominated with smectites; while other soils had illite, chlorite, palygorskite and smectite. Results indicated that citric acid extracted more K than CaCl2 and HCl (137 vs. 111 and 113 mg kg−1, respectively). The analysis of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and K concentrations in the solutions suggests that the exchange of K with soluble Ca and Mg (originated from dissolution of carbonates by acidic solutions) is the main mechanism of K release, but citrate is able to dissolve K-bearing minerals and release K in slightly calcareous soils. Soils with more illite released more K. Potassium fixation capacity of soils increased after extractions of soils with different extractants from 324 to 471 mg kg−1, with no significant difference. It is suggested to apply more K fertilizers in K-depleted calcareous soils and use of different solutions for extracting K from soil minerals may be a temporary and short term solution.  相似文献
10.
The interlayered hydroxy-aluminum of a chlorite-smectite intergrade in a dark-red soil derived from a pyroxene andesite altered by hydrothermal action was extracted easily by boiling treatments using both sodium-citrate and ammonium-fluoride solutions. Moreover, this interlayered aluminum was released partially by using a dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate system and an acid ammonium-oxalate solution which were prepared originally for removing the coexistent sesquioxides from soils.  相似文献
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