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1.
长期施肥对农田土壤真菌的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
不合理施肥所引发的土壤环境问题逐渐成为制约我国农业可持续发展的重要因素之一,而土壤真菌作为一类重要的土壤微生物,研究施肥措施对真菌群落的影响对促进农业生产具有重要意义。本研究以有20年历史的长期定位试验田为研究对象,利用末端限制性片段长度多态性分析技术,对长期定位施肥农田生态系统中不同施肥方式对土壤真菌群落的影响以及时间变化规律进行了系统研究。长期施肥定位试验包括EM堆肥(EM)、传统堆肥(OF)、化肥(CF)和不施肥(CK)处理。主要研究结果如下:在0~20 cm土层,施肥处理对土壤真菌多样性有显著影响,Shannon-Weiner多样性指数为2.64~3.53,Simpson集中性指数为0.03~0.08;EM和OF处理的Shannon-Weiner多样性指数均显著高于CF和CK;在3月、6月和10月,EM和OF处理与CF和CK处理相比,有较高的真菌多样性;Simpson集中性指数最高的是3月的CK处理,最低的是10月的EM和OF处理。冗余分析结果表明,土壤pH、有机质、总氮、有效磷和有效钾等对真菌影响显著。因此,长期施用有机肥与化肥相比可以提高土壤真菌多样性,改变其群落结构;与化肥处理相比,施用EM堆肥,不仅可以保持土壤可持续利用性,同时改善0~20 cm土层土壤真菌的生存环境;3种施肥处理对土壤真菌群落结构影响程度由强到弱:EMOFCF。  相似文献
2.
为了评价耐草甘膦转基因大豆对土壤线虫的影响,在网室盆栽试验条件下,研究了成熟期耐草甘膦转基因大豆M88根际土壤线虫丰度、营养类群组成和生态学指数以及土壤环境因子和线虫群落之间的相关性。结果表明:试验共分离鉴定出23个土壤线虫属,8个功能群,其中非转基因大豆中黄13(Z13)种植条件下分离鉴定出土壤线虫23属,耐草甘膦转基因大豆M88种植条件下分离鉴定出土壤线虫21属;耐草甘膦转基因大豆M88的土壤线虫平均丰度为(1143.42±135.04)·100g^-1干土,显著高于(P〈O.05)非转基因大豆中黄13[(756.83±141.33)·100g^-1干土】;耐草甘膦转基因大豆M88显著升高了杂食捕食性线虫拟桑尼属(Thorneella)的相对丰度(P〈0.01)。虽然非转基因大豆中黄13种植条件下的自由生活线虫成熟度指数脚和结构指数s,显著低于耐草甘膦转基因大豆M88(P〈0.05),但是两种大豆种植条件下土壤线虫的Shannon—Wiener多样性指数日’、属丰富度指数GR和营养多样性指数TD均无显著差异,说明耐草甘膦大豆M88对线虫群落结构多样性影响不显著。冗余分析RDA排序图显示:线虫功能组Om4和土壤有机质OM呈显著的正相关,而与硝态氮NN呈显著的负相关。  相似文献
3.
紫色土的植被恢复是中国植被恢复难题之一.为了研究龙须草植被改善紫色土生境的效果,将引种龙须草后植物群落物种多样性与土壤环境因子的变化相结合,寻找最适宜紫色土地区生态恢复的龙须草植被恢复模式.设置3种龙须草植被恢复地模式(人工恢复地Ⅰ、Ⅱ和自然恢复地Ⅲ),于2010年7月中旬在湖南松林村进行野外调查.通过群落分类双向指示种分析和群落排序冗余分析表明:1)土壤全氮量、土壤有机质质量分数、坡位和恢复模式是影响群落多样性的主要环境因子;2)3种植被恢复地模式中,人工恢复地Ⅱ的群落Gleason丰富度指数最大(坡上位2.171,坡下位5.863),土壤全氮量和土壤有机质质量分数有明显提高.因此,利用龙须草进行植被恢复时应优先选取恢复效果最好的人工恢复地模式Ⅱ.  相似文献
4.
Climate change and rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are expected to reduce the mineral nutrient content of soybean seeds. The main objective of this study was to survey diverse soybean germplasm for variation in seed elemental concentrations and their relationships between elements, protein content, and individual seed weight. Seeds from 90 soybean genotypes were weighed and subjected to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) ionomics analysis and Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) analysis to determine protein. The results demonstrated substantial variation with the possibility of significantly improving most mineral nutrients, especially selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). This diverse survey identifies genotypes that can complement existing soybean breeding programs for improving seed nutritional quality. Correlation analysis identified two clusters of co-variant elements: zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) as well as Zn, Cu, Se, and rubidium (Rb) were positively correlated with each other. Tolerable upper limits of Rb intake are not defined for humans illustrating the need to monitor trace elements along with desirable nutrients.  相似文献
5.
本研究以人参愈伤悬浮细胞为材料,在其生长的第28天添加1×10^-3mg/L水杨酸,测定水杨酸添加后,过氧化物酶、多酚氧化酶和苯丙氨酸解氨酶等3种酶在72h内的变化及皂苷含量,结果表明:水杨酸添加后对过氧化物酶和苯丙氨酸解氨酶的活力影响最大,分别在24h和48h达到最大峰值,在18h开始影响多酚氧化酶的活力,培养物生长的第28天添加水杨酸可以明显提高人参愈伤组织中皂苷的合成。确定添加水杨酸后24h提取总RNA,进行cDNA-RDA分析,筛选差异片段。确定差异基因并在GenBank中注册,注册号为FE900130。为探讨水杨酸作为诱导子对人参次生代谢的影响奠定基础。  相似文献
6.
As indicators of pollutant deposition, epiphytic algae on Norway spruce needles and lichens on Scots pine trunks were monitored at 15 sites over Sweden for 4 and 12 years, respectively. Pollutant deposition was measured simultaneously. The algae and lichens were strongly correlated to three groups of environmental factors namely geographical position, climate and pollutant deposition. Use of partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that the major part, 67%, of the total explained variation of algae was the joint effect of the three environmental factor groups. Climatic factors alone and the joint effects of S and N deposition and climate make up 13% and 12%, respectively. Pure geography and deposition accounted for less than 5% each. Also with lichens the main variation, 41%, was due to the joint effect of the three groups whereas 27% was due to pure geography and 14% to pure climate. Deposition alone and the joint effect of deposition and climate made up 5% and less. It suggests that the algae were mainly influenced by climate and deposition, and the lichens by climate and geographic position.  相似文献
7.
This study was designed to examine whether or not specific tree species (Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Populus tremuloides), their post-fire stand age, or their position in a successional pathway had any significant effect on the functional diversity of associated soil microbial communities in a typical mixed boreal forest ecosystem (Duck Mountain Provincial Forest, Manitoba, Canada). Multivariate analyses designed to identify significant biotic and/or abiotic variables associated with patterns of organic substrate utilization (assessed using the BIOLOG™ System) revealed the overall similarity in substrate utilization by the soil microbial communities. The five clusters identified differed mainly by their substrate-utilization value rather than by specific substrate utilization. Variability in community functional diversity was not strongly associated to tree species or post-fire stand age; however, redundancy analysis indicated a stronger association between substrate utilization and successional pathway and soil pH. For example, microbial communities associated with the relatively high pH soils of the P. tremuloides-P. glauca successional pathway, exhibited a greater degree of substrate utilization than those associated with the P. banksiana-P. mariana successional pathway and more acidic soils. Differences in functional diversity specific to tree species were not observed and this may have reflected the mixed nature of the forest stands and of their heterogeneous forest floor. In a densely treed, mixed boreal forest ecosystem, great overlap in tree and understory species occur making it difficult to assign a definitive microbial community to any particular tree species. The presence of P. tremuloides in all stand types and post fire stand ages has probably contributed to the large amount of overlap in utilization profiles among soil samples.  相似文献
8.
Native North American prairie grasslands are renowned for the richness of their soils, having excellent soil structure and very high organic content and microbial biomass. In this study, surface soils from three prairie restorations of varying ages and plant community compositions were compared with a nearby undisturbed native prairie remnant and a cropped agricultural field in terms of soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Soil moisture, organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total sulfur, C:N, water-holding capacity and microbial biomass (total PLFA) were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the virgin prairie remnant as well as the two long-term (21 and 24 year) prairie restorations, compared with the agricultural field and the restoration that was begun more recently (7 years prior to sampling). Soil bulk density was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the agricultural and recently restored sites. In most cases, the soil quality indicators and microbial community structures in the restoration sites were intermediate between those of the virgin prairie and the agricultural sites. Levels of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and PLFA indicators of nutritional stress were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the agricultural and recent restoration sites than in the long-term restorations or the native prairie. Samples could be assigned to the correct site by discriminant analysis of the PLFA data, with the exception that the two long-term restoration sites overlapped. Redundancy analysis showed that prairie age (p<0.005) was the most important environmental factor in determining the PLFA microbial community composition, with C:N (p<0.015) also being significant. These findings demonstrate that prairie restorations can lead to improved quality of surface soils. We predict that the conversion of farmland into prairie will shift the soil quality, microbial community biomass and microbial community composition in the direction of native prairies, but with the restoration methods tested it may take many decades to approach the levels found in a virgin prairie throughout the soil profile.  相似文献
9.
李红月  殷秀琴  马 辰  郭玉梅 《土壤学报》2017,54(4):1018-1028
在长白山地丘陵区选择次生落叶阔叶林、灌木林、采伐迹地以及耕地四种土地利用方式,对其土壤动物群落的组成、多样性和分布特征进行研究.结果表明:不同土地利用方式土壤动物群落的水平分布呈现明显的差异.采伐迹地中型土壤动物个体密度和耕地中型土壤动物类群数季节变化明显.次生落叶阔叶林和灌木林土壤动物分布随土层加深急剧减少,采伐迹地和耕地垂直分布递减和缓.同一季节土壤动物的丰富度指数和多样性指数在不同土地利用方式差异显著.土壤动物的多样性表现为灌木林最高,耕地最低.不同土地利用方式影响土壤动物群落的生态分布,其中pH、土壤有机质、有效磷和速效氮是影响长白山地丘陵区不同土地利用方式土壤动物群落分布的主导因子.  相似文献
10.
为了解西藏墨脱嘎隆拉山铁杉林土壤生态系统线虫群落的结构及多样性特征,课题组于2017年9月对嘎隆拉山铁杉林不同生境土壤0-25cm深度范围的线虫群落进行了调查。采用种类组成、个体密度、多样性指数、功能性指数等特征值分析了土壤线虫群落的结构及多样性特点。并且,对嘎隆拉山铁杉林土壤线虫群落结构与土壤理化性质之间的关系进行了冗余分析及线性相关性分析。结果显示,嘎隆拉山铁杉林土壤线虫隶属于5目29科34属,个体密度平均278条/100g干土,土层间无明显差异;群落优势属为垫咽属和细齿属;食真菌性线虫是最主要的营养类群;土壤有机质以真菌降解途径为主;指数MI、PPI 值则说明了嘎隆拉山铁杉林生态系统受到干扰较小,成熟度高,目前处于相对稳定的状态。  相似文献
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