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1.
Sources of CO2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Five main biogenic sources of CO2 efflux from soils have been distinguished and described according to their turnover rates and the mean residence time of carbon. They are root respiration, rhizomicrobial respiration, decomposition of plant residues, the priming effect induced by root exudation or by addition of plant residues, and basal respiration by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). These sources can be grouped in several combinations to summarize CO2 efflux from the soil including: root-derived CO2, plant-derived CO2, SOM-derived CO2, rhizosphere respiration, heterotrophic microbial respiration (respiration by heterotrophs), and respiration by autotrophs. These distinctions are important because without separation of SOM-derived CO2 from plant-derived CO2, measurements of total soil respiration have very limited value for evaluation of the soil as a source or sink of atmospheric CO2 and for interpreting the sources of CO2 and the fate of carbon within soils and ecosystems. Additionally, the processes linked to the five sources of CO2 efflux from soil have various responses to environmental variables and consequently to global warming. This review describes the basic principles and assumptions of the following methods which allow SOM-derived and root-derived CO2 efflux to be separated under laboratory and field conditions: root exclusion techniques, shading and clipping, tree girdling, regression, component integration, excised roots and insitu root respiration; continuous and pulse labeling, 13C natural abundance and FACE, and radiocarbon dating and bomb-14C. A short sections cover the separation of the respiration of autotrophs and that of heterotrophs, i.e. the separation of actual root respiration from microbial respiration, as well as methods allowing the amount of CO2 evolved by decomposition of plant residues and by priming effects to be estimated. All these methods have been evaluated according to their inherent disturbance of the ecosystem and C fluxes, and their versatility under various conditions. The shortfalls of existing approaches and the need for further development and standardization of methods are highlighted.  相似文献
2.
土壤有机碳激发效应研究进展   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
陈春梅  谢祖彬  朱建国 《土壤》2006,38(4):359-365
土壤有机C激发效应是加入外源物后土壤有机C周转短期的强烈变化。综合多年的研究结果表明:外源物的加入可能加速土壤有机C的矿化,产生正激发效应;也可能减缓土壤有机C的矿化,产生负激发效应。激发效应的产生受输入外源物的数量和质量、土壤本身的性质等因素影响,其产生机理还需进一步研究。本文综合这些年来利用同位素(13C和14C)示踪技术进行的土壤有机C研究,比较系统地阐述了土壤有机C激发效应产生的驱动因子、机理及其定量化,并提出了有待研究的内容。  相似文献
3.
We have investigated the effect of two nitrification inhibitors, 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and dicyandiamide (DCD), on the accumulation of and after incorporation of cauliflower residues in incubation experiments. Cauliflower leaves were incubated with soil and DCD or DMPP at two application rates [8.93 and 17.9 mg active component (ac) kg−1 for DCD; 0.89 and 1.79 mg ac kg−1 for DMPP]. Both doses of DCD and DMPP increased on average by 18.9 and 26.0 mg N kg−1 for DCD1 (during 30 days) and DCD2 (during 45 days), respectively, and on average by 14.4 mg N kg−1 for DMPP1 and DMPP2 during a period of at least 95 days. In DCD-treated soils, data followed an S-shaped curve, indicating that nitrification restarted during the experiment: inhibition was on average 24% during 35 days for DCD1 and on average 45% during 49 days for DCD2. Thereafter, amount in DCD-treated soils exceeded that of the cauliflower-only treatment by 31% for DCD1 and 78% for DCD2, probably due to a nitrogen release from DCD itself and a priming effect induced by DCD. In DMPP-treated soils, data followed a linear pattern since nitrification was inhibited during the complete incubation (95 days): inhibition was on average 56 and 64% for DMPP1 and DMPP2, respectively. DMPP did not affect the N mineralization of the crop residues. Under favourable conditions, DCD is able to inhibit the nitrification from crop residues for 50 days and DMPP for at least 95 days. Hence, especially DMPP shows a potential to reduce leaching after incorporation of crop residues.  相似文献
4.
外加碳、氮对土壤氮矿化、固定与激发效应的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
本文利用14C和15N对中国生黄绵土(坡地黄绵土)、菜园黄绵土和瑞典耕作草甸土的土壤氮矿化、固定与激发效应进行了研究。结果表明,外加碳、氮能促进土壤氮的矿化、固定与激发效应;促进作用的大小次序为外加NH4-15N大于外加NO3-15N,外加葡萄糖+NH4-15N大于外加葡萄糖+NO3-15N,外加麦秸+NH4-15N大于外加麦秸+NO3-15N,外加葡萄糖+NH4-15大于外加麦秸+NH4-15,外加葡萄糖+NO3-15N大于外加麦秸+NO3-15N;低肥力土壤高于高肥力土壤。在本文中提出了土壤净矿化氮的激发效应、土壤生物固定氮激发效应和土壤总矿化氮的总激发效应的概念,认为土壤氮的总激发效应更能反映土壤氮激发效应的实质。  相似文献
5.
The soil microbial biomass survives as a largely dormant population for long periods without fresh substrates, depending for growth upon a rapid uptake of substrates when they become available. Currently, little investigation has been made into the mechanisms involved in the transition from dormancy to activity. We found that additions of trace amounts of different simple and complex substrates (glutamic acid, amino acids mixture, glucose, protein hydrolysates, carbohydrates, compost extract), even at very low application rates (5-μg C g−1 soil), caused an immediate and significant activation (measured as increased CO2-C evolved) of the soil microbial biomass. The different substrates caused different intensities of respiration response, which were related to the substrates’ composition, complexity, and degradability. The difference between the CO2-C evolved from the amended soil minus that evolved from a similarly incubated but non-amended soil ranged from 80 to 160% of the humified carbon C added as substrate, with most of the substrates causing a positive priming effect, in agreement with previous findings. The activation ended after 5–70 h, depending on the substrate, but the microbial biomass could be reactivated with further additions. It seems that the microbial biomass first responds to traces of substrate by increasing its metabolic activity in anticipation of a larger ‘food event’. Overall, these results indicate that soil micro-organisms have evolved metabolic and physiological strategies that allow them to survive and growth in the generally poor-substrate soil environment.Contribution presented at the Exploratory Workshop: ‘Non-molecular manipulation of soil microbial communities’, held at the University of Udine, Udine, Italy from 17 to 20 October, 2004. The workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation and the University of Udine.  相似文献
6.
外加碳、氮对黄绵土有机质矿化与激发效应的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
应用14C标记的葡萄糖和麦秸,15N标记的(NH4)2SO4和Ca(NO3)2对生黄绵土、菜园黄绵土土壤有机质的矿化与激发效应进行了研究。结果表明,外加有机质,特别是外加易分解的葡萄糖,和外加氮源,特别是外加(NH4)2SO4,对两种黄绵土土壤的有机质矿化与激发效应都有明显的促进作用,土壤有机质的矿化是高肥力菜园黄绵土高于低肥力生黄绵土,而有机质矿化的激发效应却是低肥力生黄绵土高于高肥力菜园黄绵土。外加有机质与外加N同时施入土壤时,外加N对外加有机质的矿化与激发效应同样有明显的促进作用,并发现外加有机质与外加N在促进土壤有机质矿化与激发效应过程中表现出正交互作用。激发效应对土壤肥力的更新和培养有积极作用。  相似文献
7.
The number of studies on priming effects (PE) in soil has strongly increased during the last years. The information regarding real versus apparent PE as well as their mechanisms remains controversial. Based on a meta-analysis of studies published since 1980, we evaluated the intensity, direction, and the reality of PE in dependence on the amount and quality of added primers, the microbial biomass and community structure, enzyme activities, soil pH, and aggregate size. The meta-analysis allowed revealing quantitative relationships between the amounts of added substrates as related to microbial biomass C and induced PE. Additions of easily available organic C up to 15% of microbial biomass C induce a linear increase of extra CO2. When the added amount of easily available organic C is higher than 50% of the microbial biomass C, an exponential decrease of the PE or even a switch to negative values is often observed. A new approach based on the assessment of changes in the production of extracellular enzymes is suggested to distinguish real and apparent PE. To distinguish real and apparent PE, we discuss approaches based on the C budget. The importance of fungi for long-term changes of SOM decomposition is underlined. Priming effects can be linked with microbial community structure only considering changes in functional diversity. We conclude that the PE involves not only one mechanism but a succession of processes partly connected with succession of microbial community and functions. An overview of the dynamics and intensity of these processes as related to microbial biomass changes and C and N availability is presented.  相似文献
8.
水稻对红壤中N、P的吸收利用   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
傅志坚  王德先 《核农学报》1992,6(4):214-218
试验结果表明,当施氮量一定的情况下,增施磷、钾肥,氮肥利用率和水稻的产量都有显著的增加。谷粒产量和氮肥利用率为29.78g/盆和44.37%,分别比对照(单施氮肥)提高22.75%和9.62%。合理施用氮、钾肥,磷肥的利用率也有显著增加(为29.10%),比单施磷肥利用率提高6.88%。  相似文献
9.
激发式秸秆深还对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
针对目前黄淮海平原潮土区普遍实施的覆盖式秸秆还田所存在的主要问题,本研究提出了基于氮肥激发的秸秆深埋还田技术,并通过连续4年(2011—2014)的大田定位试验进行检验。系统比较了秸秆移除、秸秆覆盖还田、激发式秸秆深还(秸秆与无机氮肥或有机氮肥配施进行深埋,并于行间种植作物)的3种秸秆还田方式对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响。结果表明:激发式秸秆深还在各项土壤养分指标和冬小麦产量方面均有显著优势,该处理能够显著增加土壤有机质、微生物生物量碳、微生物生物量氮、土壤全氮和土壤硝态氮含量,并显著提升冬小麦产量。其中无机氮肥激发秸秆深还处理能显著增加土壤硝态氮含量和冬小麦有效穗数,从而显著提升冬小麦产量。而有机氮肥激发的秸秆深还处理主要通过提升土壤有机质,增加冬小麦千粒重来增加产量。所有处理中16%无机氮肥激发的秸秆深还冬小麦产量最高。  相似文献
10.
The mechanisms and specific sources of priming effects, i.e. short term changes of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition after substance addition, are still not fully understood. These uncertainties are partly method related, i.e. until now only two C sources in released CO2 could be identified. We used a novel approach separating three carbon (C) sources in CO2 efflux from soil. The approach is based on combination of different substances originated from C3 or C4 plants in different treatments and identical transformation of substances like C3 sugar (from sugar beet) and C4 sugar (from sugar cane). We investigated the influence of the addition of two substances having different microbial utilizability, i.e. slurry and sugar on the SOM or/and slurry decomposition in two grassland soils with different levels of Corg (2.3 vs. 5.1% C). Application of slurry to the soil slightly accelerated the SOM decomposition. Addition of sugar lead to changes of SOM and slurry decomposition clearly characterized by two phases: immediately after sugar addition, the microorganisms switched from the decomposition of hardly utilizable SOM to the decomposition of easily utilizable sugar. This first phase was very short (2-3 days), hence was frequently missed in other experiments. The second phase showed a slightly increased slurry and SOM decomposition (compared to the soil without sugar). The separation of three sources in CO2 efflux from grassland soils allowed us to conclude that the C will be utilized according to its utilizability: sugar>slurry>SOM. Additionally, decomposition of more inert C (here SOM) during the period of intensive sugar decomposition was strongly reduced (negative priming effect). We conclude that, priming effects involve a chain of mechanisms: (i) preferential substrate utilization, (ii) activation of microbial biomass by easily utilizable substrate (iii) subsequent increased utilization of following substrates according to their utilizability, and (iv) decline to initial state.  相似文献
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