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基于耕作半径分析的山区农村居民点布局优化   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
该文以四川省西昌市为例,探讨了基于耕作半径分析的山区农村居民点布局优化方法。首先对西昌市高山陡坡区、低山缓坡区、河谷平原区农村居民点特征进行分析,而后借助GIS欧氏距离分析工具及网络分析模块来分析3个区域适宜的耕作半径,以及西昌市农村居民点向"0.5、1、2、3、4、5 hm~2"农村居民点聚集后耕作半径的变化,最后提出西昌市不同区域"合村并居"策略。研究结果表明:西昌市农村居民点破碎化程度高,微型与小型农村居民点数量占总数量的94.8%。河谷平原区、低山缓坡区、高山陡坡区适宜的耕作半径分别为3000~4000、750~950、550~750m。河谷平原区农村居民点向大于3 hm~2农村居民点聚集后,可形成具有一定规模的村庄,并满足耕作半径要求;低山缓坡区部分农村居民点可向大于1 hm~2,且交通便捷的农村居民点集中,从而形成具有一定规模的农村居民点;高山陡坡区农村居民点就地迁并价值不高,除部分少数民族聚居点以外,其他农村居民点迁并工程应与退耕还林还草、异地扶贫搬迁、山地保护与修复等工程协同推进,逐渐向低山缓坡区与河谷平原区迁移。该方法可用于计算不同区域适宜的耕作半径,及不同合村并居情景对耕作半径的影响,从而提高合村并居规划的合理性。  相似文献
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Previous soil surveys across the north-east German lowland have reported significant correlations of soil microbial biomass (SMB) contents and organic carbon and total nitrogen contents as well as texture. Using these data sets obtained from 89 arable sites along a regional-scale transect, a linear full-factorial regression model and a neural network model were constructed and evaluated for landscape-scale assessment of SMB. The validation by means of an additional data set consisting of 30 long-term soil observation sites located in the federal state of Brandenburg was within a confidence range of 95%. Using existing models from other regions with our data sets resulted in underestimation of SMB, while using data sets from another region with our model led to overestimation of SMB. It was concluded that a linear full-factorial regression model approach, as well as neural network modelling are promising tools for the prediction of SMB at the landscape scale but need to be validated for the respective region.  相似文献
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根际细菌-真菌群落的互作关系对于土壤养分转化有重要意义。为研究施加生物质炭对根际土壤细菌-真菌之间相互作用的影响,通过盆栽试验,比较未施加生物质炭的对照和施加2%生物质炭处理条件下,黑麦草根际细菌-真菌群落间的互作网络及影响因素。结果表明,施加生物质炭后的细菌-真菌群落之间的互作网络具有更复杂的联系,节点数和互作关系增加,细菌内部以及细菌与真菌之间的种间积极作用显著增强(P0.05);模块化分析对照和处理下的互作网络,均发现存在两个具有高度互连节点的模块化结构。网络中起到关键连接作用的类群在对照中为细菌中的孙修勤菌(Sunxiuqinia)和真菌中的毕赤酵母(Pichia),施加生物质炭处理后为细菌中的黄杆菌(Flavobacterium)。Mantel检验分析表明,施加生物质炭处理后土壤pH(r=0.385,P=0.003)和土壤铵态氮(r=0.501,P=0.003)对细菌-真菌群落相互作用的影响显著增强。  相似文献
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Physical and biological soil stabilities (i.e. resistance and resilience) were measured on a range of arable farms across eastern Scotland under a range of management practices, with the objective of using a geographically restricted set of soils under similar land use to detect any underlying associations between soil stability, management factors and soil properties. Data were analysed using a combination of a stepwise fixed effects model selection within a linear mixed‐model framework (LMM) and neural network analysis using a Kohonen self‐organising map (KSOM). In general, physical and biological measures of stability were associated with both physical and biological soil properties, particularly bulk density, water retention characteristics, soil carbon and bacterial community structure. A strength of KSOM is its ability to fit more flexible models than the linear relationships of LMM. However, a weakness is that it does not have the ability of LMM to model the sampling design, which is likely to lead to overstating statistical significance. Consequently, KSOM identified more significant associations between soil properties and stability than LMM, while the latter identified significant associations at the between‐farm level. The high‐level land management decisions of farm type (conventional, organic, integrated), crop type or underlying soil type were not associated with stability at this regional scale, thus indicating that the effects of different management practices between farms were overridden by the soil properties on each farm. Management decisions on improving soil stability therefore need to be taken at the individual field scale.  相似文献
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为了适应负荷逐年增长的趋势,对现有网络的网架更新是必需的。该文给出了负荷预测模型,定义了电力网的适应度,根据最小、最大负荷增长率确定规划期末的最小、最大负荷。并且分析了网络的适应度,确定了适应度不满足要求的路径。然后在遵循满足电压质量、投资最小、损耗最低的原则前提下,确定了网架更新方案。并且以农网的实际干线为例,进行计算、分析和比较,结果表明,该文提出的方法可以确定网架的薄弱部分,易于确定网架更新方案,改善网络的节点电压及减小电能损失,而且在保证辐射式网架结构的前提下可以适用于多电压等级、多干线区域网的网架更新。  相似文献
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