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为明确黄土高原旱作麦田长期保护性耕作对土壤肥力和土壤原核微生物的效应,以位于山西省临汾市实施保护性耕作26年的小麦田为试验基地,采用Illumina Hiseq 2500高通量测序等手段,开展了不同耕作措施[免耕覆盖(NTS)、深松免耕覆盖(SNTS)和传统耕作(TT1)]对土壤理化性质和土壤原核微生物多样性的影响分析。研究结果表明:1)NTS和SNTS处理比TT1处理显著提高了土壤全氮、碱解氮、速效磷及速效钾的含量,降低了土壤pH,提高了土壤贮水能力和水分含量,降低了0~10 cm土层的土壤容重,但提高了10~20 cm土层的土壤容重;同时,SNTS处理显著增加了土壤的有机质含量。2)Illumina Hiseq高通量16S rRNA基因V4区测序结果表明:NTS和SNTS处理比TT1处理显著降低了绿弯菌门的相对丰度;NTS比SNTS处理显著降低了土壤中疣微菌门和绿弯菌门的相对丰度;NTS处理显著增加了土壤原核微生物群落的多样性,但未显著改变原核微生物群落的丰度;SNTS对原核微生物群落的多样性和丰富度均未有显著改变;NTS处理的显著性差异物种(Biomarker)高于其他2个处理;其他原核微生物门的相对丰度,在3个处理间尚未有明显差异。3)聚类分析可见:NTS和SNTS处理与TT1处理的微生物群落结构差异较大;NTS处理与SNTS处理间的微生物群落结构差异较小。4)CCA分析可知:土壤pH、有机质、速效氮、速效磷、速效钾含量对土壤原核微生物群落遗传多样性的变化起着重要作用;与TT1处理相比,NTS和SNTS处理在一定程度上改变了土壤原核微生物群落结构,但仍存在结构的相似性。综上所述,长期进行NTS和SNTS处理对黄土高原旱地麦田土壤微生物多样性、丰富度以及土壤肥力因子等的正效作用明显。  相似文献
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姜黄素是从姜科植物姜黄的根茎中提取的多酚类物质,具有重要的药用价值。本研究将30只健康雄性Wistar大鼠,随机分为3组:正常对照组(n=10)、糖尿病模型组(n=10)、糖尿病模型+姜黄素治疗组(n=10简称姜黄素治疗组)。以LPS(300ug·kg·-1day·-1)皮下注射8周建立2型糖尿病模型。测定空腹血糖逸11.1 mmol/L诊断为糖尿病。造模成功后,予姜黄素200 mg/(kg·-1day·-1)灌胃。连续治疗8周后,观察各组动物的一般情况,进行口服糖耐量试验(OGTT)及采用16S rRNA基因扩增子测序比较各组大鼠的肠道菌群。研究姜黄素对脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)诱导糖尿病大鼠肠道菌群的影响。结果表明:姜黄素可改善LPS所致糖尿病大鼠的多饮、多食等症状并对糖耐量有明显的改善(p〈0.05)。LPS诱导的糖尿病大鼠肠道中提升的Melainabacteria含量可被姜黄素灌服降低(p〈0.05)。本研究揭示姜黄素具有降低LPS诱导的糖尿病大鼠血糖的作用,其机制可能与调节肠道微生态有关。  相似文献
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近年来,高通量测序等新技术的快速发展,为大规模、快速、准确、全面认识土壤微生物多样性提供了技术保障。国际上已经建成了一些具有影响力的土壤微生物组数据管理及分析平台,但大多数已有平台聚焦于提供数据存储、管理、访问、注释等基础性服务,难以满足土壤微生物研究需求。借助空间数据库技术、网络地理信息系统(WebGIS)技术,设计并构建了包含土壤及微生物数据集成、数据可视化、知识发现和区域空间制图等功能的中国土壤微生物组数据平台,该平台将进一步推动我国土壤微生物组数据的标准化整合,并为整合数据的充分挖掘利用提供支撑。  相似文献
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Low-temperature stresses, also referred to as cold temperature stresses, including chilling and freezing temperatures, are among the major abiotic stresses that severely reduce plant yield, quality, and marketability and pose a serious threat to plant production during whole plant life cycles. Plant-environment-symbiont interactions determine the symbiotic and crop performance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To achieve the optimum outcome, it is essential to consider not only plant-symbiont relationships, but also symbiont adaptation and symbiont-symbiont interactions under changing environmental conditions and different plant growth stages. Improving multi-symbiotic component systems and symbiont breeding together can be a useful strategy to improve symbiosis and, thus, crop production. In this review article, the role of interactions between multi-symbiotic components and plant-environment-symbiont relationships and the related biotechnology approaches are discussed in order to find the most effective sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices to improve crop performance and mitigate the adverse effects of low temperatures on plants.  相似文献
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Among several environmental factors shaping soil microbial communities the impact of soil nutrients is of special interest. While continuous application mainly of N and P dramatically shifts community composition during fertilization, it remains unclear whether this effect is consistent in generic, unfertilized beech forest ecosystems of Germany, where differences in nutrient contents are mostly a result of the parental material and climatic conditions. We postulate that in such ecosystems nutrient effects are less pronounced due to the possibility of the soil microbiome to adapt to the corresponding conditions over decades and the vegetation acts as the major driver. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the bacterial community composition in five different German beech dominated forest soils, representing a natural gradient of total‐ and easily available mineral‐P. A community fingerprinting approach was performed using terminal‐Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while abundance of bacteria was measured applying quantitative real‐time PCR. Bacterial communities at the five forest sites were distinctly separated, with strongest differences between the end‐members of the P‐gradient. However the majority of identified microbial groups (43%) were present at all sites, forming a core microbiome independent from the differences in soil chemical properties. Especially in the P‐deficient soil the abundance of unique bacterial groups was highly increased, indicating a special adaption of the community to P limitation at this site. In this regard Correspondence Analysis elucidated that exclusively soil pH significantly affected community composition at the investigated sites. In contrast soil C, N and P contents did mainly affect the overall abundance of bacteria.  相似文献
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为了深入挖掘利用丙酮丁醇梭菌产生物丁醇过程中氨基酸代谢的动态过程,探究利用廉价氮源玉米浆中的氨基酸用于丙酮丁醇梭菌产生物丁醇的生产策略,寻找生产丁醇的高效率廉价氮源来降低发酵生产成本。该研究首先利用高通量测序技术对玉米浆中微生物多样性进行分析;同时基于丙酮丁醇梭菌(Clostridium acetobutylicum)生产丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol,ABE)碳代谢动态模型的基础上,构建氨基酸代谢模型,以此模拟15种氨基酸在利用木糖为碳源发酵生产ABE中的氨基酸代谢过程,并对氨基酸的代谢与丙酮丁醇梭菌的生物量以及ABE的合成相关性关系进行冗余分析;通过模型预测实际生产中利用玉米浆发酵时氨基酸的消耗过程。结果表明,梭状芽胞杆菌属(Clostridium)占细菌总数的68.76%,是玉米浆中的优势菌群;最佳参数校正后构建了氨基酸代谢模型,模拟值与试验值有较好拟合度;11种氨基酸(苯丙氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、蛋氨酸、缬氨酸、酪氨酸、甘氨酸、丝氨酸、精氨酸、天冬酰胺)在培养过程中迅速消耗用于细胞生长和溶剂生成,3种氨基酸(脯氨酸、组织胺、天冬氨酸)保持稳定状态,同时发酵过程中谷氨酰胺积累;冗余分析表明其中5种氨基酸对发酵产物及生物量影响具有相关性(P<0.05),相关性排序从大到小依次为丝氨酸、甘氨酸、亮氨酸、缬氨酸、天冬酰胺;模拟预测玉米浆中缬氨酸、甘氨酸、丝氨酸在发酵过程中基本被消耗,推测其为发酵后期的营养限制性因子。该结论可证实玉米浆可作为丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵丁醇的优势氮源,为丙酮丁醇梭菌的氨基酸代谢调控及下一步利用并优化玉米浆作为氮源生产生物丁醇提供一定的理论参考和数据支撑。  相似文献
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