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1.
W. Amelung  X. Zhang  K.W. Flach   《Geoderma》2006,130(3-4):207-217
The response of soil organic nitrogen (SON) dynamics to climate may partly be deduced from changes in the concentration and origin of the major N constituents in soil, such as amino acids. In this study, we determined the enantiomers of bound amino acids in 18 native grassland soils (0–10 cm) that were sampled along a transect from central Saskatchewan, Canada, to Southern Texas, USA. Mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 0.9 to 23.4 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 300 to 1308 mm. d-alanine and d-glutamic acid served as markers for the bacterial origin of SON. The d-content of lysine, phenylalanine, and aspartic acid indicated an ageing of the respective SON forms. Deuterium labeling was applied to account for hydrolysis-induced racemization reactions. We found that the concentration of the bacterial biomarkers was weakly but significantly parabolically related to MAT, as previously reported for microbial-derived amino sugars. The age markers d-lysine, d-phenylalanine, and d-aspartic acid comprised 2–15% of the respective l-form. The presence of these compounds demonstrated that the structures that contained these d-enantiomers had survived microbial attack, i.e., these hydrolyzable SON forms were conserved in soil despite a living environment. First estimates indicate that the mean residence time of the lysine-containing organic matter forms extend beyond a century. Within this time-scale we did not find that climate significantly affects the degree of ageing of SON constituents in the studied topsoils.  相似文献
2.
Chao Liang  Teri C. Balser 《Geoderma》2008,148(1):113-119
Microorganisms participate in soil carbon storage by contributing biomass in the form of refractory microbial cell components. However, despite the important contribution of microbial biomass residues to the stable carbon pool, little is known about how the contribution of these residues to soil carbon storage varies as a function of depth. In this study, we evaluated microbial residue biomarkers (amino sugars) in varied pedogenic horizons from six soil profiles of two geographic sites on a glacial-landscape toposequence in Dane County, WI. We found that the amino sugars appeared to preferentially accumulate in subsoil. Specifically, although total amounts of amino sugars decreased downward through the profile as even as total organic carbon did, the rate of decrease was significantly lower, suggesting that these compounds are more refractory than general soil organic carbon. The proportion of amino sugars to soil organic carbon increased along the depth gradient (from top to bottom), with the exception of Bg horizons associated with high water tables. We also observed that microbial residue patterns measured by amino sugar ratio (e.g., glucosamine to muramic acid) showed different dynamic tendencies in the two different geographic sites, suggesting that residue carbon contribution by fungi and bacteria is likely site-specific and complex. In summary, regardless of the redox microenvironment created by groundwater dynamics in a given soil, our study supports the hypothesis that microbial residues are refractory and that they contribute to terrestrial carbon sequestration.  相似文献
3.
Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be deduced from biomass measurements alone. Moreover, residual microbial tissue is thought to facilitate SOM stabilization, and to provide a long term integrated measure of effects on the microorganisms. In this study, we therefore compared the effect of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the biomass, growth rate and residues of the major microbial decomposer groups fungi and bacteria. Soil samples were collected at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) from plots in an Irish winter wheat field that were exposed to either conventional or shallow non-inversion tillage for 7 growing seasons. Total soil fungal and bacterial biomasses were estimated using epifluorescence microscopy. To separate between biomass of saprophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizae, samples were analyzed for ergosterol and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers. Growth rates of saprophytic fungi were determined by [14C]acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation, whereas bacterial growth rates were determined by the incorporation of 3H-leucine in bacterial proteins. Finally, soil contents of fungal and bacterial residues were estimated by quantifying microbial derived amino sugars. Reduced tillage increased the total biomass of both bacteria and fungi in the 0-5 cm soil layer to a similar extent. Both ergosterol and PLFA analyses indicated that RT increased biomass of saprophytic fungi in the 0-5 cm soil layer. In contrast, RT increased the biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizae as well as its contribution to the total fungal biomass across the whole plough layer. Growth rates of both saprotrophic fungi and bacteria on the other hand were not affected by soil tillage, possibly indicating a decreased turnover rate of soil microbial biomass under RT. Moreover, RT did not affect the proportion of microbial residues that were derived from fungi. In summary, our results suggest that RT can promote soil C storage without increasing the role of saprophytic fungi in SOM dynamics relative to that of bacteria.  相似文献
4.
Prolonged intensive arable cropping of semiarid grassland soils in the South African Highveld resulted in a significant loss of C, N and associated living and dead microbial biomass. To regenerate their soils, farmers converted degraded arable sites back into secondary pastures. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of microorganisms to the sequestration of C and N in soil during this regeneration phase. Composite samples were taken from the topsoils of former arable land, namely Plinthustalfs, which had been converted to pastures 1-31 years ago. Amino sugars were determined as markers for microbial residues in the bulk soil and in selected particle-size fractions. The results showed that when C and N contents increased during the secondary pasture usage, the amino sugar concentration in the bulk soil (0-5 cm) recovered at similar magnitude and reached a new steady-state level after approximately 90 years, which corresponded only to 90% of the amino sugar level in the primary grassland. The amino sugar concentration in the clay-sized fraction recovered to a higher end level than in the bulk soil, and also at a faster annual rate. This confirms that especially the finer particles contained a high amount of amino sugars and were responsible, thus, for the restoration of microbially derived C and N. The incomplete recovery of amino sugars in bulk soil can only in parts be attributed to a slightly coarser texture of secondary grassland that had lost silt through wind erosion. The soils particularly had also lost the ability to restore microbial residues below 5 cm soil depth. Overall, the ratios of glucosamine to muramic acid also increased with increasing duration of pasture usage, suggesting that fungi dominated the microbial sequestration of C and N whereas the re-accumulation of bacterial cell wall residues was less pronounced. However, the glucosamine-to-muramic acid ratios finally even exceeded those of the primary grassland, indicating that there remained some irreversible changes of the soil microbial community by former intensive crop management.  相似文献
5.
An arable soil with organic matter formed from C3-vegetation was amended initially with maize cellulose (C4-cellulose) and sugarcane sucrose (C4-sucrose) in a 67-day laboratory incubation experiment with microcosms at 25 °C. The amount and isotopic composition (13C/12C) of soil organic C, CO2 evolved, microbial biomass C, and microbial residue C were determined to prove whether the formation of microbial residues depends on the quality of the added C source adjusted with NH4NO3 to the same C/N ratio of 15. In a subsequent step, C3-cellulose (3 mg C g−1 soil) was added without N to soil to determine whether the microbial residues formed initially from C4-substrate are preferentially decomposed to maintain the N-demand of the soil microbial community. At the end of the experiment, 23% of the two C4-substrates added was left in the soil, while 3% and 4% of the added C4-cellulose and C4-sucrose, respectively, were found in the microbial biomass. The addition of the two C4-substrates caused a significant 100% increase in C3-derived CO2 evolution during the 5-33 day incubation period. The addition of C3-cellulose caused a significant 50% increase in C4-derived CO2 evolution during the 38-67 day incubation period. The decrease in microbial biomass C4-C accounted for roughly 60% of this increase. Cellulose addition promoted microorganisms strongly able to recycle N immediately from their own tissue by “cryptic growth” instead of incorporating NO3 from the soil solution. The differences in quality of the microbial residues produced by C4-cellulose and C4-sucrose decomposing microorganisms are also reflected by the difference in the rates of CO2 evolution, but not in the rates of net N mineralization.  相似文献
6.
An incubation experiment with organic soil amendments was carried out with the aim to determine whether formation and use of microbial tissue (biomass and residues) could be monitored by measuring glucosamine and muramic acid. Living fungal tissue was additionally determined by the cell-membrane component ergosterol. The organic amendments were fibrous maize cellulose and sugarcane sucrose adjusted to the same C/N ratio of 15. In a subsequent step, spherical cellulose was added without N to determine whether the microbial residues formed initially were preferentially decomposed. In the non-amended control treatment, ergosterol remained constant at 0.44 μg g−1 soil throughout the 67-day incubation. It increased to a highest value of 1.9 μg g−1 soil at day 5 in the sucrose treatment and to 5.0 μg g−1 soil at day 33 in the fibrous cellulose treatment. Then, the ergosterol content declined again. The addition of spherical cellulose had no further significant effects on the ergosterol content in these two treatments. The non-amended control treatment contained 48 μg muramic acid and 650 μg glucosamine g−1 soil at day 5. During incubation, these contents decreased by 17% and 19%, respectively. A 33% increase in muramic acid and an 8% increase in glucosamine were observed after adding sucrose. Consequently, the ratio of fungal C to bacterial C based on bacterial muramic acid and fungal glucosamine was lowered in comparison with the other two treatments. No effect on the two amino sugars was observed after adding cellulose initially or subsequently during the second incubation period. This indicates that the differences in quality between sucrose and cellulose had a strong impact on the formation of microbial residues. However, the amino sugars did not indicate a preferential decomposition of microbial residues as N sources.  相似文献
7.
The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 °C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 °C or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ 15N stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition. In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller amount of 15–17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues was inconsistent. Rhizodeposition increased the crop residue C mineralisation only in the lupin treatment; a similar pattern was found for microbial C, whereas the microbial N was increased by rhizodeposition in all treatments. The recovery of residual 15N in the microbial and mineral N pool was similar between the treatments containing only labelled crop residues and labelled crop residues + labelled rhizodeposits. This indicates a similar decomposability of both rhizodeposition N and crop residue N and may be attributable to an immobilisation of both N sources (rhizodeposits and crop residues) as microbial residues and a subsequent remineralisation mainly from this pool.Abbreviations C or Ndec C or N decomposed from residues - C or Nmic microbial C or N - C or Nmicres microbial residue C or N - C or Nmin mineralised C or N - C or Ninput added C or N as crop residues and/or rhizodeposits - dfr derived from residues - dfR derived from rhizodeposition - Ndfr N derived from residues - NdfR N derived from rhizodeposition - Nloss losses of N derived from residues - SOM soil organic matter - WHC water holding capacity  相似文献
8.
Amino sugars, being predominantly of microbial origin, can help elucidate the role of microbes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soils. However, little is known about the microbial degradation and synthesis of soil amino sugars as affected by plant-derived organic materials. We conducted a 30-week microcosm study using three soils amended with soybean leaf or maize stalk to investigate changes in the amounts and patterns of amino sugars over time. The total soil amino sugar content initially increased during the incubation, but later decreased. Amino sugar content of soil amended with maize stalk peaked at an earlier time than it did for soybean leaf, suggesting nutrient quantity and substrate composition influence microbial transformation. Temporal dynamics of the proportion of total soil amino sugar to organic matter after plant material addition conformed to parabolic models (r > 0.8; p < 0.01), which tended to converge over time. The models predicted that the proportions would ultimately approach the initial values as determined before amendment. These findings suggest that soil organic matter has the ability to maintain a baseline steady-state level of amino sugars, and support the interpretation of soil amino sugar reservoir as two components: the Stable Pool (SP) and the Transition Pool (TP).  相似文献
9.
分析肥料施用及肥料与秸秆配施后土壤氨基糖在玉米不同生长时期的动态变化和研究微生物来源物质的转化迁移特征,这对研究土壤有机质循环和C、N截获有重要意义,这也可为研究微生物对土壤有机质(SOM)转化和积累的动力学过程提供理论基础。本试验依托中科院沈阳应用生态研究所野外生态站进行田间微区试验,选取化肥[(NH_4)_2SO_4]和化肥+秸秆(玉米秸秆)配施两个处理的0~10和10~20 cm层次的土壤作为研究对象,取样时间分别设为播种前、拔节期、吐丝期、灌浆期、成熟期,本文通过分析玉米不同生长期土壤氨基糖氮的动态变化以揭示土壤-微生物的相互作用对土壤肥力的调控。单施化肥处理在0~10和10~20 cm两个层次下土壤总氨基糖氮总体呈下降趋势,从播种期到灌浆期0~10 cm层次3种氨基单糖(氨基葡萄糖、氨基半乳糖、胞壁酸)氮也都表现出下降趋势。秸秆配施处理下0~10 cm层次与单施化肥相比氨基糖氮含量低。两种处理下均表现为在拔节期时10~20 cm层次真菌群落比细菌群落占优势,而0~10 cm层次细菌群落占优势。从吐丝期到灌浆期,单施化肥处理下细菌群落强于真菌群落,而秸秆配施处理下真菌群落明显强于细菌群落。土壤氨基糖在作物不同生长期作为碳氮源可以被植物和微生物有效利用。秸秆降解过程中微生物代谢类型发生变化,秸秆降解可为微生物提供养分,同时微生物对养分的需求出现明显转变,从而使得秸秆配施影响了微生物数量。在玉米整个生长期,土壤微生物群落会发生变化,初期以细菌群落为主,细菌残留物对土壤有机质的积累贡献大,生长中期真菌开始占主导地位,秸秆配施有利于真菌群落积累。  相似文献
10.
The formation of soil organic matter (SOM) has been proposed to depend on fragmentation of biomass after cell death. However, this is hard to mimic in laboratory experiments showing the process directly. We used heavy metal contamination in order to provide an environment in which one Streptomyces strain, the heavy metal resistant S. mirabilis P16B‐1, could survive while the sensitive strain S. lividans TK24 was expected to die and disintegrate; the necromass fragments would then contribute to SOM formation. Both strains were grown for 30 d in sterile mesocosms containing either highly metal‐contaminated soil from a former uranium‐mining site in Ronneburg, Germany, or control soil from a municipal park, Jena, Germany. The fate and morphology of living and dead bacterial biomass (necromass) was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Attachment of soil particles to the intact mycelium as well as decay of dead biomass was observed. Dead bacterial biomass was identified in form of patchy fragments while the superordinate filamentous structure of the hyphae was still visible and obviously stabilized in soil. The fate of cytosolic compounds was followed using the example of a nickel‐containing superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) which was found to be released after death of cells grown in liquid soil‐extract medium. Activity of the enzyme was proven for concentrated media supernatant by a gel‐based qualitative activity assay. This indicates that NiSOD remains active in soil after cell death. Hence, bacterial cell death results in the release of cytosolic compounds, e.g., intact proteins, as well as the formation of residual cell‐envelope fragments contributing to SOM formation.  相似文献
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