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1.
Despite the impact of soil millipedes on litter fragmentation in tropical forests, there have been few studies dealing with factors determining their habitat preference in these ecosystems. In a natural secondary dry forest of Guadeloupe on Leptosol, two complementary studies were carried out in order to test the hypothesis that litter N-content strongly influences millipede distribution. Millipede abundance and species richness were described in the field under two tree species, Bursera simaruba and Pisonia subcordata, and were related to the chemical characteristics of their foliage. In addition, a laboratory experiment was done in order to assess millipede feeding preferences regarding the chemical characteristics of leaves from various species. Millipede abundance and species richness were significantly higher under P. subcordata than under B. simaruba, probably due to the higher N content of P. subcordata leaves. Moreover, millipedes fed preferentially on N-rich leaves. The present study confirms that there was a close correlation between the preferred food, its chemical composition and the local distribution of millipede populations.  相似文献
2.
Like other N-fixing invasive species in Hawaii, Falcataria moluccana dramatically alters forest structure, litterfall quality and quantity, and nutrient dynamics. We hypothesized that these biogeochemical changes would also affect the soil microbial community and the extracellular enzymes responsible for carbon and nutrient mineralization. Across three sites differing in substrate texture and age (50-300 years old), we measured soil enzyme activities and microbial community parameters in native-dominated and Falcataria-invaded plots. Falcataria invasion increased acid phosphatase (AP) activities to >90 μmol g−1 soil h−1 compared to 30-60 μmol g−1 soil h−1 in native-dominated stands. Extracellular enzymes that mineralize carbon and nitrogen also increased significantly under Falcataria on the younger substrates. By contrast, total microbial biomass and mycorrhizal abundance changed little with invasion or substrate. However, fungal:bacterial ratios declined dramatically with invasion, from 2.69 and 1.35 to <0.89 on the 50- and 200-year-old substrates, respectively. These results suggest that Falcataria invasion alters the composition and function of belowground soil communities in addition to forest structure and biogeochemistry. The increased activities of AP and other enzymes that we observed are consistent with a shift toward phosphorus limitation and rapid microbial processing of litterfall C and N following Falcataria invasion.  相似文献
3.
The symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is known to affect growth and tissue quality of plants. Therefore, mycorrhization may also have “afterlife” effects on decomposition dynamics. We tested this hypothesis with plant material of mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants of seven grassland species. We found that mycorrhization increased the decomposition rate and interpret this result as a consequence of the enhanced nutritive status of the plant tissue with positive effects on decomposer activity. The turn-over of organic matter and nutrients in ecosystems may therefore be indirectly influenced by the symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi.  相似文献
4.
Peatlands represent massive global C pools and sinks. Carbon accumulation depends on the ratio between net primary production and decomposition, both of which can change under projected increases of atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. The decomposition of litter is influenced by 1) the quality of the litter, and 2) the microenvironmental conditions in which the litter decomposes. This study aims at experimentally testing the effects of these two drivers in the context of global change. We studied the in situ litter decomposition from three common peatland species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Polytrichum strictum and Sphagnum fallax) collected after one year of litter production under pre-treatment conditions (elevated CO2: 560 ppm or enhanced N: 3 g m−2 y−1 NH4NO3) and decomposed the following year under treatment conditions (same as pre-treatment). By considering the cross-effects between pre-treatments and treatments, we distinguished between the effects on mass loss of 1) the pre-treatment-induced litter quality and 2) the treatment conditions under which the litters were decomposing. The combination between CO2 pre-treatment and CO2 treatment reduced Polytrichum decomposition by −24% and this can be explained by litter quality-driven decomposition changes brought by the pre-treatment. CO2 pre-treatment reduced Eriophorum litter quality, although this was not sufficient to predict decomposition. The N addition pre-treatment reduced the decomposition of Eriophorum, due to enhanced lignin and soluble phenols concentrations in the initial litter, and reduced litter-driven losses of starch and enhanced litter-driven losses of soluble phenols. While decomposition indices based on initial litter quality provide a broad explanation of quantitative and qualitative decomposition, they can only be taken as first approximations. Indeed, the microbial ATP activity, the litter N loss and resulting litter quality, were strongly altered irrespective of the compounds' initial concentration and by means of processes that occurred independently of the initial litter-qualitative changes. The experimental design was valuable to assess litter- and ecosystem-driven decomposition pathways simultaneously or independently. The ability to separate these two drivers makes it possible to attest the presence of litter-qualitative changes even without any litter biochemical determinations, and shows the screening potential of this approach for future experiments dealing with multiple plant species.  相似文献
5.
Tree species-rich tropical rainforests are characterized by a highly variable quality of leaf litter input to the soil at small spatial scales. This diverse plant litter is a major source of energy and nutrients for soil microorganisms, particularly in rainforests developed on old and nutrient-impoverished soils. Here we tested the hypothesis that the variability in leaf litter quality produced by a highly diverse tree community determines the spatial variability of the microbial respiration process in the underlying soil. We analyzed a total of 225 litter-soil pairs from an undisturbed Amazonian rainforest in French Guiana using a hierarchical sampling design. The microbial respiration process was assessed using substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and compared to a wide range of quality parameters of the associated litter layer (litter nutrients, carbon forms, stoichiometry, litter mass and pH). The results show that the variability of both litter quality and SIR rates was more important at large than at small scales. SIR rates varied between 1.1 and 4.0 μg g−1 h−1 and were significantly correlated with litter layer quality (up to 50% of the variability explained by the best mixed linear model). Total litter P content was the individual most important factor explaining the observed spatial variation in soil SIR, with higher rates associated to high litter P. SIR rates also correlated positively with total litter N content and with increasing proportions of labile C compounds. However, contrary to our expectation, SIR rates were not related to litter stoichiometry. These data suggest that in the studied Amazonian rainforest, tree canopy composition is an important driver of the microbial respiration process via leaf litter fall, resulting in potentially strong plant-soil feedbacks.  相似文献
6.
Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent in northern Nevada. Feeding by the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on Tamarix spp. trees leads to altered leaf litter quality and increased exposure to solar UVB radiation from canopy opening. In addition, we examined the dynamics of litter decomposition of the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium, because it is well-situated to invade beetle-infested Tamarix sites. Three leaf litter types (natural Tamarix, beetle-affected Tamarix, and L. latifolium) differing in substrate quality were decomposed in litterbags for one year in the field. Litterbags were subjected to one of three treatments: (1) Ambient UVB or (2) Reduced UVB (where UVB was manipulated by using clear plastic films that transmit or block UVB), and (3) No Cover (a control used to test for the effect of using the plastic films, i.e. a cover effect). Results showed a large cover effect on rates of decomposition and nutrient release, and our findings suggested that frequent cycles of freeze-thaw, and possibly rainfall intensity, influenced decomposition at this site. Contrary to our expectations, greater UVB exposure did not result in faster rates of decomposition. Greater UVB exposure resulted in decreased rates of decomposition and P release for the lower quality litter and no change in rates of decomposition and nutrient release for the two higher quality litter types, possibly due to a negative effect of UVB on soil microbes. Among litter types, rates of decomposition and net release of N and P followed this ranking: L. latifolium > beetle-affected Tamarix > natural Tamarix. Altered nutrient dynamics with beetle introduction as well as the rapid decomposition rates exhibited by L. latifolium are consistent with vulnerability to secondary invasion. In this desert ecosystem, decomposition and nutrient release were strongly affected by litter type and much less so by UVB exposure.  相似文献
7.
Plant chemical composition and the soil community are known to influence litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Although these two factors are likely to interact, their mechanisms and outcomes of interaction are not well understood. Studies of their interactive effects are rare and usually focus on carbon dynamics of litter, while nutrient dynamics in the underlying soil have been ignored. A potential mechanism of interaction stems from the role fauna plays in regulating availability of litter-derived materials in the mineral soil. We investigated the role of soil fauna (meso, macro) in determining the effect of surface-litter chemical composition on nitrogen mineralization and on the micro-food web in mineral soils. In a field setting we exposed mineral soil to six types of surface-applied litter spanning wide ranges of multiple quality parameters and restricted the access of larger soil animals to the soils underlying these litters. Over six months we assessed litter mass and nitrogen loss, nitrogen mineralization rates in the mineral soils, and soil microbes and microfauna. We found evidence that the structure of the soil community can alter the effect of surface-litter chemical composition on nitrogen dynamics in the mineral soil. In particular, we found that the presence of members of the meso- and macrofauna can magnify the control of nitrogen mineralization by litter quality and that this effect is time dependent. While fauna were able to affect the size of the micro-food web they did not impact the effect of litter composition on the abundance of the members of the micro-food web. By enhancing the strength of the impact of litter quality on nitrogen dynamics, the larger fauna can alter nitrogen availability and its temporal dynamics which, in turn, can have important implications for ecosystem productivity. These findings contribute to evidence demonstrating that soil fauna shape plant litter effects on ecosystem function.  相似文献
8.
Changes in plant species diversity can result in synergistic increases in decomposition rates, while elevated atmospheric CO2 can slow the decomposition rates; yet it remains unclear how diversity and changes in atmospheric CO2 may interact to alter root decomposition. To investigate how elevated CO2 interacts with changes in root-litter diversity to alter decomposition rates, we conducted a 120-day laboratory incubation. Roots from three species (Trifolium repens, Lespedeza cuneata, and Festuca pratense) grown under ambient or elevated CO2 were incubated individually or in combination in soils that were exposed to ambient or elevated CO2 for five years. Our experiment resulted in two main findings: (1) Roots from T. repens and L. cuneata, both nitrogen (N) fixers, grown under elevated CO2 treatments had significantly slower decomposition rates than similar roots grown under ambient CO2 treatments; but the decomposition rate of F. pratense roots (a non-N-fixing species) was similar regardless of CO2 treatment. (2) Roots of the three species grown under ambient CO2 and decomposed in combination with each other had faster decomposition rates than when they were decomposed as single species. However, roots of the three species grown under elevated CO2 had similar decomposition rates when they were incubated alone or in combination with other species. These data suggest that if elevated CO2 reduces the root decomposition rate of even a few species in the community, it may slow root decomposition of the entire plant community.  相似文献
9.
Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon gerardii (Andropogon), Nassella viridula (Nassella) and Pascopyrum smithii (Pascopyrum); in ascending order of litter quality. Net mineralization (per g soil N) measured in year-long laboratory incubations showed no differences in comparisons of Bromus with two of the three native grasses: Andropogon and Nassella. Higher mineralization in Pascopyrum stands relative to Bromus was consistent with its higher litter quality. However, an unusually high occurrence of an N-fixing legume in Pascopyrum stands, potentially favoring high mineralization rates, confounded any conclusions regarding the effects of plant N use on N mineralization. Instead of an initial flush of net mineralization, as would be expected in laboratory incubation, we observed an initial lag phase. This lag in net N mineralization coincided with high microbial activity (respiration) that suggests strong N limitation of the microbial biomass. Further support for the importance of immobilization initially came from modeling mineralization dynamics, which was explained better when we accounted for microbial growth in our model. The absence of strong differences in net mineralization beneath these grasses suggests that differences in plant N use alone were unlikely to influence soil N mineralization through substrate quality, particularly under strong N control of the microbial biomass.  相似文献
10.
Nitrogen (N) availability is increasing in many ecosystems due to anthropogenic disturbance. We used a nucleotide analog technique and sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes to test whether N fertilization altered active fungal communities in two boreal ecosystems. In decaying litter from a recently burned spruce forest, Shannon diversity decreased significantly with N fertilization, and taxonomic richness declined from 44 to 33 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In soils from a mature spruce forest, richness also declined with N fertilization, from 67 to 52 OTUs. Fungal community structure in litter differed significantly with N fertilization, primarily because fungi of the order Ceratobasidiales increased in abundance. We observed similar changes in fungal diversity and community structure with starch addition to litter, suggesting that N fertilization may affect fungal communities by altering plant carbon inputs. These changes could have important consequences for ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient mineralization.  相似文献
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