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1.
农业技术和气候变化对农作物产量和蒸散量的影响   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
随着农业生产条件的改善、品种改进和有利的气象条件的变化, 世界各地的作物产量得到大幅度提高, 但作物的蒸散量却未出现大幅度提高。本文以石家庄气象站1955~2007 年的气象资料为基础, 分析了河北省冬小麦和夏玉米生长期间主要气象因素变化, 结合中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站长期定位灌溉试验的研究结果, 分析了农业生产条件和气象因子变化对冬小麦和夏玉米产量及耗水量的影响。结果表明,1955~2007 年冬小麦和夏玉米生长季的气象因子发生了变化, 日照时数、相对湿度、风速、气温日较差显著降低, 最低气温、平均气温和积温显著升高, 气象因子的变化对作物总蒸散量未产生明显影响, 但由于降水减少,作物生长期间的灌溉需水量呈增加趋势。长期灌溉试验结果表明, 随着农业生产条件的变化和品种的改良, 冬小麦和夏玉米的产量不断增加, 而耗水量的增加幅度小于产量增加幅度, 夏玉米的耗水量呈稳定状态。节水技术的推广和应用对维持耗水量稳定起着非常关键的作用。  相似文献   
2.
作物需水量计算方法研究   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
介绍了作物需水量的影响因素,并针对这些影响因素将作物需水量的计算方法分为3类,每类选取有代表性的几种方法进行探讨,指出它们的优缺点和适用条件,对今后的作物需水量研究有重要的参考价值。  相似文献   
3.
[目的]研究景天属植物的耗水规律及需水特征,为景天属植物在北方干旱地区进行抗旱节水生态建设提供理论依据。[方法]以草地早熟禾为对照,研究了德景天、八宝景天、三七景天、卧茎景天4种景天属植物的耗水规律和需水特性。[结果]浇水后进行控水,4种景天属植物及草地早熟禾的土壤水分在控水约10 d内大量蒸发,土壤相对含水量下降了60%左右,土壤已达重度干旱;4种景天属植物及草地早熟禾的日蒸散量随土壤水分的减少而减少,在控水约10 d内大量蒸散,之后日蒸散量极小。4种景天植物的年蒸散量为177.09~247.22 kg/m2,草地早熟禾年蒸散量为811.05 kg/m2,当地年降雨量为474.50 kg/m2,理论上4种景天植物均无需灌溉,草地早熟禾需年补充水分336.55 kg/m2、年浇水10次;园林绿化实践中4种景天属植物的浇水应为2次/年,草地早熟禾的浇水应为12次/年。[结论]景天属植物抗旱性极强,能够耐受极端干旱环境而保持正常生长和景观,从而实现节水灌溉。  相似文献   
4.
The efficient use of water by modern irrigation systems is becoming increasingly important in arid and semi-arid regions with limited water resources. This study was conducted for 2 years (2005 and 2006) to establish optimal irrigation rates and plant population densities for corn (Zea mays L.) in sandy soils using drip irrigation system. The study aimed at achieving high yield and efficient irrigation water use (IWUE) simultaneously. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block split plot design with three drip irrigation rates (I1: 1.00, I2: 0.80, and I3: 0.60 of the estimated evapotranspiration), and three plant population densities (D1: 48,000, D2: 71,000 and D3: 95,000 plants ha−1) as the main plot and split plot, respectively. Irrigation water applied at I1, I2 and I3 were 5955, 4762 and 3572 m3 ha−1, respectively. A 3-day irrigation interval and three-way cross 310 hybrid corn were used. Results indicated that corn yield, yield components, and IWUE increased with increasing irrigation rates and decreasing plant population densities. Significant interaction effects between irrigation rate and plant population density were detected in both seasons for yield, selected yield components, and IWUE. The highest grain yield, yield components, and IWUE were found for I1D1, I1D2, or I2D1, while the lowest were found for I3D2 or I3D3. Thus, a high irrigation rate with low or medium plant population densities or a medium irrigation rate with a low plant population density are recommended for drip-irrigated corn in sandy soil. Crop production functions with respect to irrigation rates, determined for grain yield and different yield components, enable the results from this study to be extrapolated to similar agro-climatic conditions.  相似文献   
5.
Studying farmland evaporative fraction (EF) plays an important role in interpreting the components of energy budget and evapotranspiration (ET). The present study examines the pattern of vineyard EF after monitoring energy components by eddy covariance for 2 years, and estimates the crop ET by EF in the arid desert region of Northwest China. Main results indicate that EF during daytime is nearly constant on sunny days when the available energy exceeds 200 W m−2, but EF becomes relatively unsteady when the available energy is lower than 200 W m−2. Furthermore, daytime average EF is relatively low in the early growth stage, nearly constant in the mid-later stage, and significantly reduced in the later stage; Moreover, mean EF in different periods of daytime is in good agreement with daytime average EF, mean EF during 10:00–15:00 h is relatively close to daytime average EF and mean EF during 14:00–15:00 h is approximately equal to daytime average EF. The estimated daytime ET from mean EF during 14:00–15:00 h is highly correlated to the measured ET by Bowen ratio-energy balance though the value is partially underestimated. This study demonstrated that daytime ET can be estimated from midday EF and the relationship can be used to guide irrigation practice in the arid region.  相似文献   
6.
The reduction in agricultural water use in areas of scarce supplies can release significant amounts of water for other uses. As improvements in irrigation systems and management have been widely adopted by fruit tree growers already, there is a need to explore the potential for reducing irrigation requirements via deficit irrigation (DI). It is also important to quantify to what extent the reduction in applied water through DI is translated into net water savings via tree evapotranspiration (ET) reduction. An experiment was conducted in a commercial pistachio orchard in Madera, CA, where a regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) program was applied to a 32.3-ha block, while another block of the same size was fully irrigated (FI). Four trees were instrumented with six neutron probe access tubes each, in the two treatments and the soil water balance method was used to determine tree ET. Seasonal irrigation water in FI, applied through a full-coverage microsprinkler system, amounted to 842 mm, while only 669 mm were applied in RDI. Seasonal ET in FI was 1024 mm, of which 308 mm were computed as evaporation from soil (Es). In RDI, seasonal ET was reduced to 784 mm with 288 mm as Es. The reduction in applied water during the deficit period amounted to 147 mm. The ET of RDI during the deficit period was also reduced relative to that of FI by 133 mm, which represented 33% of the ET of FI during the deficit irrigation period. There was an additional ET reduction in RDI of about 100 mm that occurred in the post-deficit period.  相似文献   
7.
Over-watering cotton wastes a valuable and scarce resource; it can also lead to rank growth, nutrient leaching, and contaminated groundwater. Since under-watering can decrease yields, the question becomes one of finding the optimum application regime. An irrigation experiment was set up to apply water at six different application rates, ranging from 33% to 144% of normal, with hopes of identifying the regime that produces maximum yield. Two cultivars, Acala Maxxa and Acala PhytoGen-72 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), were planted on sandy soil and irrigated daily with a highly efficient subsurface drip irrigation system for four seasons. The results showed that on the average there was no significant difference in the yield of the two cultivars and there was no significant difference in the yield for the three wettest treatments. The driest of the three wettest treatments, treatment 4, was a critical point on the water production function curve. It represented the least amount of water applied that still produced essentially maximum yield, and it had the highest water use efficiency. This critical level of water application during mid-season was found to be, on the average, 95% of Class A pan evaporation; it corresponded to a total seasonal application of 654 mm of water. Any application less than this critical level decreased yields. Reducing the water application by 5% below the critical level caused about a 4.6% reduction in yield. The critical level produced a soil moisture level that remained nearly constant throughout the season. The final plant height was closely related to the depth of water applied, with the wettest treatment producing plant heights of 2.0 m, and the driest treatment producing plant heights of 0.6 m. At the extremes of the water application rates there were some small differences in the early-season growth rate of the plants, but the main cause of differences in final plant height was the date of cutout (cessation of main stem node production). The length of season for the driest treatment was about 4 weeks shorter than for the wettest treatment on both cultivars. Results showed that deficit irrigation of cotton on sandy soil can greatly reduce yield, and the practice should probably be avoided.  相似文献   
8.
Quantifying the local crop response to irrigation is important for establishing adequate irrigation management strategies. This study evaluated the effect of irrigation applied with subsurface drip irrigation on field corn (Zea mays L.) evapotranspiration (ETc), yield, water use efficiencies (WUE = yield/ETc, and IWUE = yield/irrigation), and dry matter production in the semiarid climate of west central Nebraska. Eight treatments were imposed with irrigation amounts ranging from 53 to 356 mm in 2005 and from 22 to 226 mm in 2006. A soil water balance approach (based on FAO-56) was used to estimate daily soil water and ETc. Treatments resulted in seasonal ETc of 580–663 mm and 466–656 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Yields among treatments differed by as much as 22% in 2005 and 52% in 2006. In both seasons, irrigation significantly affected yields, which increased with irrigation up to a point where irrigation became excessive. Distinct relationships were obtained each season. Yields increased linearly with seasonal ETc (R2 = 0.89) and ETc/ETp (R2 = 0.87) (ETp = ETc with no water stress). The yield response factor (ky), which indicates the relative reduction in yield to relative reduction in ETc, averaged 1.58 over the two seasons. WUE increased non-linearly with seasonal ETc and with yield. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation during the drier 2006 season, compared with 2005. Both seasons, IWUE decreased sharply with irrigation. Irrigation significantly affected dry matter production and partitioning into the different plant components (grain, cob, and stover). On average, the grain accounted for the majority of the above-ground plant dry mass (≈59%), followed by the stover (≈33%) and the cob (≈8%). The dry mass of the plant and that of each plant component tended to increase with seasonal ETc. The good relationships obtained in the study between crop performance indicators and seasonal ETc demonstrate that accurate estimates of ETc on a daily and seasonal basis can be valuable for making tactical in-season irrigation management decisions and for strategic irrigation planning and management.  相似文献   
9.
Soil-water conditions for ricefields located in valleys in micro-catchments are simulated using a daily soil-water balance model. The crop is primarily rainfed but there is also limited irrigation water. The simulation covers a complete year and includes features such as rainfall, irrigation releases, runoff from uplands, actual evaporation and evapotranspiration, percolation losses through the bed and bunds of the ricefield, standing water in the field and overflows from the ricefield. A specific location in Sri Lanka is selected to illustrate the approach. The impacts of different conditions are explored including alternative irrigation releases, increased losses through the bed and bunds of the ricefield and a lower overflow from the ricefield. Simulations indicate that ricefields which are towards the valley sides have an increased inflow due to runoff from adjacent uplands; this can lead to improved rice yields. However, reducing heights of the bunds to half the original value results in substantial overflows during periods of high rainfall while the number of days without submergence almost doubles. This uncomplicated model is consistent with the limited field data and information available; it provides a realistic representation of the important processes and indicates why poor crop yields often occur.  相似文献   
10.
Crop water parameters, including actual evapotranspiration, transpiration, soil evaporation, crop coefficients, evaporative fractions, aerodynamic resistances, surface resistances and percolation fluxes were estimated in a commercial mango orchard during two growing seasons in Northeast Brazil. The actual evapotranspiration (Ea) was obtained by the eddy covariance (EC) technique, while for the reference evapotranspiration (E0); the FAO Penman–Monteith equation was applied. The energy balance closure showed a gap of 12%. For water productivity analysis the Ea was then computed with the Bowen ratio determined from the eddy covariance fluxes. The mean accumulated Ea for the two seasons was 1419 mm year−1, which corresponded to a daily average rate of 3.7 mm day−1. The mean values of the crop coefficients based on evapotranspiration (Kc) and based on transpiration (Kcb) were 0.91 and 0.73, respectively. The single layer Kc was fitted with a degree days function. Twenty percent of evapotranspiration originated from direct soil evaporation. The evaporative fraction was 0.83 on average. The average relative water supply was 1.1, revealing that, in general, irrigation water supply was in good harmony with the crop water requirements. The resulting evapotranspiration deficit was 73–95 mm per season only. The mean aerodynamic resistance (ra) was 37 s m−1 and the bulk surface resistance (rs) was 135 s m−1. The mean unit yield was 45 tonne ha−1 being equivalent to a crop water productivity of 3.2 kg m−3 when based on Ea with an economic counterpart of US$ 3.27 m−3. The drawback of this highly productive use of water resources is an unavoidable percolation flux of approximately 300 mm per growing season that is detrimental to the downstream environment and water users.  相似文献   
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