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1.
施氮量对夏玉米碳氮代谢和氮利用效率的影响   总被引:22,自引:3,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
本试验研究了施氮量(0、90、180、270 kg/hm2)对夏播玉米CF008、金海5号和郑单958碳氮积累、运转及氮肥利用的影响。结果表明,3个品种的茎叶碳氮积累量、成熟期地上部总氮量均为在施氮量180 kg/hm2或270 kg/hm2下较高,但是最终碳氮运转率、氮素吸收效率、氮素利用效率和氮肥利用率均在施氮量90 kg/hm2下较高。本试验中,碳运转率与产量呈正相关,氮运转率与氮肥利用率呈正相关,表明较高的碳氮运转率可以促进产量和氮肥利用率的提高。本研究在施氮量90 kg/hm2下,CF008和金海5号茎鞘的C/N值在吐丝期和成熟期分别为22.11~22.91、35.66~54.23,叶片的C/N值分别为4.32~5.11、9.06~10.57;在施氮量90~180 kg/hm2下,3个品种夏玉米产量达到了10688~11461 kg/hm2;CF008和金海5号的氮肥利用率达到了31.55%~49.33%,而郑单958的氮肥利用率仅为15.11%~19.20%。  相似文献
2.
麦稻两熟地区不同埋深对还田秸秆腐解进程的影响   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
为探讨稻麦两熟地区还田秸秆的腐解进程,用尼龙网袋法研究了麦稻秸秆不同埋深(0、7、14.cm)对还田秸秆腐解及C/N比的影响。结果表明,在麦田,埋深14.cm的秸秆腐解速度最快,覆盖在表层较慢。稻田由于有水层的作用和高温高湿的环境,秸秆腐解比麦田快,覆盖在表层比埋入土中的略慢。麦季稻秸覆盖还田一季后秸秆残留率在60%左右,埋入土中的残留率在40%左右;稻季麦秸覆盖还田一季后秸秆残留率在25%左右,而埋在土中的残留率在20%左右。随着还田秸秆的腐解,秸秆含氮量逐渐增加,全碳含量下降,秸秆C/N比降低。麦季稻秸覆盖C/N比较高,而稻季麦秸覆盖的C/N比较低。一季后麦田稻秸的C/N比平均在30左右,稻田麦秸在15以上,比土壤腐殖质的C/N比高,说明种植一季作物后,还田的秸秆尚未完成腐殖化过程。  相似文献
3.
Composts produced from animal manures and shredded paper were characterized in terms of their carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) forms and C mineralization. Total, water-soluble, acid-hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable C and N contents were determined on composts sampled on days 0, 11, 18, 26, 33, 40 and 59 after composting was initiated. Water-soluble and acid-hydrolyzable C and N decreased during composting, whereas non-hydrolyzable C remained relatively constant, and non-hydrolyzable N greatly increased during composting. The water-soluble forms of N were characterized by a decrease of ammomium (NH4 +-N) at the beginning of composting, followed by an increase of nitrate (NO3 -N) towards the end of composting. The mineralization of C in composted materials was generally higher at the beginning than at the end of composting, whereas no differences were observed for mineralization of C in non-hydrolyzable materials. The addition of N inhibited C mineralization in composts except in samples collected on days 40 and 59, while C mineralization was strongly stimulated by adding N to the non-hydrolyzable materials. The data suggest that the N forms in the non-hydrolyzable materials were chemically similar and not readily available to microbes, indicating that the C/N ratios often used to assess the biodegradability of organic matter and to develop compost formulations should be based on biologically available N and C and not on total N and C. Received: 12 May 1997  相似文献
4.
Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Sewage sludge is increasingly used as an organic amendment to soil, especially to soil containing little organic matter. However, little is known about utility of this organic amendment with N-enriched or adjusted C:N ratios in soil. We studied the effects of adding of different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 t ha−1) and C:N ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) of sewage sludge on enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulphatase and urease) in a clay loam soil at 25 °C and 60% soil water holding capacity. Nitrogen was added in the form of (NH4)2 SO4 solution to the sludge to reduce the C:N ratio from 9:1 to 6:1 and 3:1. The addition of different doses and C:N ratios of the sludge caused a rapid and significant in the enzymatic activities in soils, this increase was specially noticeable in soil treated with high doses of the sludge. In general, enzymatic activities in sludge-amended soils tended to decrease with the incubation time. All activities reached peak values at 30 days incubation and then gradually decreased up to 90 days of incubation. Sewage sludges also the increased available metal (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in the soils. However, the presence of available soil metals due to the addition of the sludge at all doses and C:N ratios did negatively affect all enzymatic activities in the soils. This experiment indicated that all doses and C:N ratios of sewage sludge applied to soil would have harmful effects on enzymatic activity. Some heavy metals found in sewage sludge may negatively influence soil enzyme activities during the decomposition of the sludge.  相似文献
5.
An approach for estimating when soils will reach maximum nitrogen storage   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Abstract. Net accumulation of organic nitrogen in soil is constrained by the amount of organic matter and its minimum C:N ratio. Our objective was to estimate the potential for New Zealand soils to continue accumulating nitrogen within the soil organic pool. We calculated total carbon and nitrogen in the top metre of 138 representative soil profiles from the New Zealand National Soils Database. Carbon in these mainly pasture soils was assumed to be at steady state. The maximum nitrogen storage capacity was estimated by calculating the amount of nitrogen stored under assumed minimum soil C:N ratios of either 9, 10 or 11. The storage capacity remaining was determined as the difference between the amount of nitrogen currently stored and the maximum storage capacity. The length of time before a soil profile will reach the maximum capacity for nitrogen storage was calculated assuming net accumulation of 20, 50 and 100 kg N ha−1 yr−1. A C:N ratio of 9 (giving most storage capacity) and a conservative accumulation rate of 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1 showed that 12% of these soils would be at maximum storage within 40 years. A C:N ratio of 10 and a storage rate of 50 kg N ha−1 yr−1 would result in 54% of the soils reaching maximum storage within the next 40 years. As the capacity for nitrogen storage in soils declines, nitrate leaching is likely to increase with associated risk to the environment.  相似文献
6.
长期不同施肥处理对棕壤氮储量的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
为揭示施肥对棕壤氮素状况的影响,利用29年长期肥料定位试验,研究了不同施肥处理条件下土壤全氮在0―60 cm土层的分布特征,并在此基础上计算0―60cm土层氮库的储量变化。结果表明,不同施肥处理土壤全氮含量、C/N比值均随土层深度增加而降低,其影响主要表现在表层;而对0―60cm 土层全氮储量有显著性影响(P<0.05)。长期不同施肥处理后土壤全氮及其储量变化趋势是:高量有机肥区>低量有机肥区>化肥区>无肥区>试验前(1979年),特别是高量有机肥和化肥配合施用效果最显著;单施化肥处理土壤全氮含量和储量虽有缓慢提高,但差异不显著。说明土壤氮素含量的提高与施肥措施密切相关,有机肥和化肥配合施用能提高土壤全氮含量和储量,是维持土壤肥力的最优施肥方式。  相似文献
7.
有机物料及其配施在潮土中的残留特点   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
试验采用尼龙布袋埋袋法研究了5种单一物料(玉米秸、稻秸、苜蓿、鸡粪、猪粪)和2种混合物料(玉米秸-猪粪-鸡粪、苜蓿-猪粪-鸡粪)在潮土中的腐解状况,以了解土壤中有机质的积累规律,探讨有机肥料对土壤的培肥效果。研究结果表明,玉米秸、稻秸、苜蓿、鸡粪、猪粪等是增加土壤有机质的较好物料;对C/N比较高的物料,当增加N素(添加猪粪、鸡粪这些氮含量较高的物料)、调节C/N比值时,可以促进混合物料有机碳的分解和向腐殖质的转化。  相似文献
8.
为明确不同耐低氮性玉米品种花后物质生产及叶片功能特性,采用大田试验,以玉米耐低氮品种‘正红311’和低氮敏感品种‘先玉508’为试验材料,在6个氮水平下研究花后物质生产及叶片功能特性。结果表明:施氮可显著提高玉米干物质积累、叶面积指数和叶片光合速率,延缓花后叶片叶绿素含量和全氮含量的下降,抑制生育后期叶片C/N值的增加,从而提高玉米的最终产量。耐低氮品种‘正红311’花后干物质积累、叶片光合速率、叶面积指数和产量均显著高于低氮敏感品种‘先玉508’,‘正红311’较‘先玉508’平均提高30.5%、9.2%、35.0%和8.8%。两品种吐丝后叶片叶绿素含量差异显著,耐低氮品种‘正红311’平均较低氮敏感品种‘先玉508’提高4.85%。两品种吐丝后叶片氮含量差异不大,但‘正红311’和‘先玉508’吐丝-成熟期叶片全氮含量分别下降31.5%和34.9%,‘正红311’降幅低于‘先玉508’。两品种花后叶片C/N值差异显著,‘先玉508’较‘正红311’平均提高5.95%。与低氮敏感品种‘先玉508’相比,耐低氮品种‘正红311’花后叶片光合速率更高、叶面积指数更大,而叶片叶绿素含量和全氮含量降幅与 C/N 值增幅更低,延缓了生育后期叶片的衰老,延长了叶片的功能期,增加干物质积累和产量。施用氮肥可有效提高‘正红311’干物质积累、叶面积指数和产量,延缓其生育后期叶片C/N值升高,而‘先玉508’需要较高的施氮水平才能维持其花后叶片光合速率和全氮含量。  相似文献
9.
Carbon mineralization kinetics as influenced by soil properties   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
In a short-term laboratory study C mineralization potentials were determined on soil samples obtained from some representative agricultural soils in Tuscany, Italy. All the kinetic models tested to describe the mineralization process provided a good fit to the experimental data. A modified first-order model best described C mineralization in the soil. Both potentially mineralizable C and the mineralization rate (k) varied considerably among soils, reflecting the differences in soil properties. Potentially mineralizable C was positively related to C evolved as CO2 and to the exchange capacity. Normalized values (potentially mineralizable C divided by organic C), representing on average about 2% of the total soil C, was positively correlated to soil pH and negatively to the soil C pool, the soil N pool, and total microbial activity. Values for k ranged between 0.050 and 0.104 day-1, being higher in fine-textured soils and in soils with a large free Fe content. A low C:N ratio was indicative of a high k value. Turnover times for mineralized C were relatively rapid, ranging from 10 to 20 days.  相似文献
10.
为探究C/N、菌剂、木酢液3因子及菌剂与木酢液交互作用对堆肥腐熟效果的影响,寻求最佳堆肥效果的因子水平组合。本研究以园林绿化废弃物为主要原料,通过L9(34)正交设计以鸡粪为C/N调理剂,菌剂和木酢液为添加剂进行堆肥试验。分析比较了各处理堆肥过程中温度、总有机碳、全氮、C/N、pH值、EC值、堆体体积等指标的变化情况,并以种子发芽率试验测定堆肥效果。结果表明,调节C/N比和添加适量菌剂与木酢液均能促使堆肥初温上升,高温期提前并延长,堆肥积温提高,发酵周期缩短,总有机碳降解量和总氮相对含量增加。适当调节C/N和添加适量菌剂均有利于堆肥pH值升高,防止EC值过高,而添加木酢液能明显降低堆肥pH与EC值。C/N、菌剂、木酢液、菌剂与木酢液交互作用对堆肥发芽指数的影响均达极显著水平,且影响效果表现为C/N>菌剂>木酢液。因素效应的差异显著性检验结果表明,C/N为30效果最好,0.4%菌剂与稀释500倍木酢液的交互作用最大,稀释50倍的木酢液对堆肥微生物活性存在一定的抑制作用。可见,基于种子发芽指数的园林绿化废物堆肥适宜参数组合为C/N30+0.4%菌剂+稀释500倍木酢液。  相似文献
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