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美国国有林经营及对中国的启示   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
在介绍美国国有林经营政策的基础上,针对中国国有林经营现状,提出应借鉴的经验:减轻税费负担,加强营造林基础;提高林业科技水平,发展高效林业;构建国有林资源法制化管理体系;重视跨部门跨学科的交流和合作;采用生态系统管理方法,开发和保护并重。  相似文献
2.
社区是有效保护天然林的主体   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
自然保护区管理的实践证明,仅靠政府的投入而忽略社区的角色和作用是难以实现自然资源的有效管理的。天然林保护工程的实施面临着来自当地社区的比自然保护区管理更大的压力。社区林业的实践表明以社区为基础的森林资源管理可能是天然林有效保护的途径之一,社区将是天然林有效保护的主体。  相似文献
3.
Summary

The goal of this paper is to describe recent attempts to define the stewardship concept and to translate it into action on the ground. The focus is on national forest lands and the unique challenges federal land managers face in working with the public to implement a concept that has different meanings to a variety of stakeholders. Stewardship requires more flexibility than is often found under existing administrative authorities. Large, bureaucratic agencies face many barriers in applying creative and innovative solutions to existing problems, not the least of which are internal and external reward structures. While there exist some authorities that allow for the creative testing of stewardship contracting projects on the ground, a number of challenges remain. Two significant ones are: (1) the need for a clearer, consistent understanding (by both Forest Service employees and constituents) of the authorities that can be used to test stewardship concepts; and (2) a more broad-based agreement on the desired outcome of stewardship projects. Given the current lack of understanding and agreement on how to implement stewardship concepts, the most effective means of moving the issue forward will be to apply innovative tests of contracting methods under current or new temporary authorities. These tests should be designed, implemented, monitored, and evaluated using broad-based, inclusive, on-the-ground coalitions that create effective ties and linkages between local and national levels.  相似文献
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Congressional hearings pertaining to national forest management, timber sales, the National Forest Management Act (NFMA), and the Resources Planning Act (RPA) were censused and subjected to content analysis. Trends in interest group attitudes toward the Forest Service, as revealed by their formal position statements to Congress, were identified for the period 1984 to 1993. The resulting quantitative data were converted into percent pro and con values and plotted over time. Industry support has waned, and although positive responses from environmental groups have increased, they have not been enough to offset the industry decline. Opinions toward management issues have shown the greatest shift, while attitudes regarding timber sales and NFMA/RPA have remained relatively uniform throughout the time period. This analysis suggests that the United States Forest Service has lost an element of leverage in its dealings with Congress. As its programs have become broader, its support from interest groups has weakened. Research Assistant Professor and Department Head.  相似文献
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