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科尔沁沙地小叶锦鸡儿灌丛降雨截留特征研究   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
 本研究于2009年6-9月,在科尔沁沙地选择主要固沙灌木———小叶锦鸡儿为研究对象,通过对该灌丛的穿透雨和树干茎流的观测,确定了截留量、穿透雨量和茎流量在降雨分配中的比例,分析了降雨量和降雨强度对该灌丛的降雨截留量、穿透量的影响。试验期间,完整观测了穿透雨和茎流量的降雨总共为103.1 mm,其中的穿透雨量、茎流量和截留量分别为73.1,4.1和25.9mm,分别占降雨的百分比为70.9%,4.0%和25.1%。回归分析表明该灌丛的穿透雨量、树干茎流量和截留量都与降雨量呈正相关关系,而穿透百分比和截留百分比则与降雨量的指数函数拟合较好;穿透百分比与1h最大降雨强度呈指数相关关系,而截留百分比和1h最大降雨强度与幂函数拟合较好。  相似文献
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枯草层对草地早熟禾草坪水分利用的影响   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
对草地早熟禾Poa pratensis草坪不同累积厚度下枯草层对水分的拦截程度及在水分充足供应和胁迫处理条件下的蒸散进行了测定,研究发现枯草层能大量截留外来水分,并随着厚度的增加,截留量增大;水分充足供应条件下,无枯草层累积的草坪蒸散量更大;在胁迫处理下,有枯草层累积的草坪相对蒸散率先表现出下降趋势,此时土壤水势为-40 kPa左右,无枯草层累积的草坪在土壤水势达-50 kPa时才开始下降,表明有枯草层累积的草坪更容易发生水分亏缺;当草坪出现明显胁迫症状后,无枯草层累积的草坪蒸散量较大.  相似文献
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The expansion of piñon and juniper trees into sagebrush steppe and the infilling of historic woodlands has caused a reduction in the cover and density of the understory vegetation. Water is the limiting factor in these systems; therefore, quantifying redistribution of water resources by tree species is critical to understanding the dynamics of these formerly sagebrush-dominated rangelands. Tree canopy interception may have a significant role in reducing the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground beneath the tree, thereby reducing the amount of available soil moisture. We measured canopy interception of rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém.) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) across a gradient of storm sizes. Simulated rainfall was used to quantify interception and effective precipitation during 130 rainfall events ranging in size from 2.2 to 25.9 mm hr 1 on 19 trees of each species. Effective precipitation was defined as the sum of throughfall and stemflow beneath tree canopies. Canopy interception averaged 44.6% (± 27.0%) with no significant difference between the two species. Tree allometrics including height, diameter at breast height, stump diameter, canopy area, live crown height, and width were measured and used as predictor variables. The best fit predictive model of effective precipitation under canopy was described by stump diameter and gross precipitation (R2 = 0.744, P < 0.0001). An alternative management model based on canopy area and gross precipitation predicted effective precipitation with similar accuracy (R2 = 0.741, P < 0.0001). Canopy area can be derived from various remote sensing techniques, allowing these results to be extrapolated to larger spatial scales to quantify the effect of increasing tree canopy cover on rainfall interception loss and potential implications for the water budget.  相似文献
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Long-term vegetation dynamics across public rangelands in the western United States are not well understood because of the lack of large-scale, readily available historic datasets. The Bureau of Land Management’s Soil-Vegetation Inventory Method (SVIM) program was implemented between 1977 and 1983 across 14 western states, but the data have not been easily accessible. We introduce the SVIM vegetation cover dataset in a georeferenced, digital format; summarize how the data were collected; and discuss potential limitations and biases. We demonstrate how SVIM data can be compared with contemporary monitoring datasets to quantify changes in vegetation associated with wildfire and the abundance of exotic invasive species. Specifically, we compare SVIM vegetation cover data with cover data collected by BLM’s Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program (2011–2016) in a focal area in the northern Great Basin. We address issues associated with analyzing and interpreting data from these distinct programs, including differences in survey methods and potential biases introduced by spatial and temporal variation in sampling. We compared SVIM and AIM survey methods at 44 plots and found that percent cover estimates had high correspondence for all measured functional groups. Comparisons between historic SVIM data and recent AIM data documented significant declines in the occupancy and cover of native shrubs and native perennial forbs, and a significant increase in exotic annual forbs. Wildfire was a driver of change for some functional groups, with greater change occurring in AIM plots that burned between the two time periods compared with those that did not. Our results are consistent with previous studies showing that many native shrub-dominated plant communities in the Great Basin have been replaced by exotic annuals. Our study demonstrates that SVIM data will be an important resource for researchers interested in quantifying vegetation change through time across public rangelands in the western United States.  相似文献
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为了解林冠截留对东北黑土区水土保持林水分循环、分配及利用率的影响,以落叶松和落叶松-蒙古栎混交林为研究对象,在吉林省东辽县杏木小流域布设野外观测试验,对两种不同林分降雨截留特征进行分析。在15次降雨观测中,落叶松与落叶松-蒙古栎混交林的林下穿透雨分别占总降雨量的72.02%和67.42%,树干流占2.62%和2.74%,截留量占25.32%和29.80%,两种林分林冠截留率为8.93%~73.50%,落叶松-蒙古栎混交林对降雨的截留作用较佳。落叶松与落叶松-蒙古栎混交林产生地表径流各8次,共计产流3.52和3.40 mm。不同林分林下穿透雨和截留量随月份变化表现为8月>7月>6月>5月>9月,树干流为7月>8月>6月>5月>9月,9月截留率最高,分别为44.49%和49.02%,7月份截留率最低,分别为20.40%和25.17%。不同林种林下穿透雨、树干流及截留量均与降雨量呈显著线性相关(P <0.05),且当降雨量<30 mm 时,树干流增幅较小,降雨量>30 mm 时,树干流迅速增加并逐渐趋于平稳。截留率随着降雨量的增加则逐渐降低,当降雨量较小时(<30 mm),林冠截留率由73.50%降低到21.90%,随着降雨量的增大,截留率变化幅度较小,并趋于稳定。两林分林下穿透雨与降雨强度呈显著线性相关(P <0.05),树干流与降雨强度以对数拟合较好(P <0.05),降雨强度与林冠截留量和截留率相关性不显著。当降雨强度≤2.65 mm/h 时,两林分林冠截留率均大于50%。  相似文献
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