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1.
Munyua, W.K., Githigia, S.M., Mwangi, D.M., Kimoro, C.O. and Ayuya, J.M., 1997. The effects of a controlled-release albendazole capsule (Profitril-Captec) on parasitism in grazing Corriedale ewes in the Nyandarua district of Kenya. Veterinary Research Communications, 21 (2), 85-99The effects of intraruminal sustained-release capsules (IRSRCs) on parasitism in grazing Corriedale ewes were investigated over a period of 119 days (4 June-30 September 1993) using 40 ewes aged approximately 2 years and randomly divided into two groups of 20 ewes each. Each of the ewes in the treatment group received an IRSRC while the controls were left untreated. The groups were placed on adjacent 2.5-acre paddocks obtained by subdividing a 5.0-acre permanent pasture which had previously been grazed by young untreated sheep, so exposing both groups of ewes to a similar challenge from a contaminated paddock. The faecal egg counts, herbage larval counts and worm burdens of the major gastrointestinal parasites of sheep were significantly reduced by the use of the IRSRC. These parasitological effects were reflected in the increased live weight gains and heavier fleeces of the IRSRC-treated ewes. The control ewes required occasional salvage treatments during the trial period and the herbage on their paddock was heavily contaminated with infected larvae, reflected in the high worm burdens in the control ewes necropsied at the end of the trial and in tracer sheep introduced into the paddocks during the initial (day 30), interim (day 58) and final (day 89) stages of the experiment. Most capsules were exhausted within 95 days of administration, leading to a rise in the count of eggs per gram in the faeces in the treated group towards the end of the study.  相似文献
2.
阿苯达唑对波尔山羊消化道线虫的药效试验   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为了观察阿苯达唑片对波尔山羊消化道线虫的驱除效果,探讨其对波尔山羊线虫病治疗的最佳剂量,将150只波尔山羊随机分成5组,其中设阿苯达唑7.5、15 、30 mg/kg作为试验组,同时设左旋咪唑7.5 mg/kg作为药物对照组和阳性对照组,给药前后检查虫卵和虫体,计算虫卵转阴率、虫卵减少率和驱虫率,最后进行统计分析.结果显示,高剂量组和中剂量组的虫卵转阴率、虫卵减少率和驱虫率均显著高于低剂量组和盐酸左旋咪唑片对照组(P<0.01),而高剂量组与中剂量组的虫卵转阴率、虫卵减少率和驱虫率差异不显著.15 mg/kg 的阿苯达唑片对波尔山羊线虫的驱除效果安全.  相似文献
3.
A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6–18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine small-scale dairy farms were randomly selected. The selected animals on each farm were ear tagged and allocated into three groups based on live weight and treated as follows: Group T4 was treated with albendazole 10% drench at 10 mg/kg four times a year (mid rainy, end of the rain, mid dry and late dry/early rainy season). Group T2 was treated with albendazole 10% drench at 10 mg/kg two times a year (mid rainy and late dry/early rainy season). Group UT remained as untreated control. Faecal, blood and pasture samples were taken every month for 13 months. In addition, individual body weight (BWT) was measured on every sampling date. Results showed that two and four strategic treatments significantly reduced faecal egg counts (FEC) by 49.5% and 62.3% respectively compared to untreated control animals (P < 0.001). Two and four strategic treatments per year significantly reduced the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces by 30.6% and 51.7% (P < 0.001), respectively. Animals treated two and four times a year significantly outgained untreated animals by 14.8 kg and 17.7 kg respectively at the end of the trial (P < 0.05). The management system had a significant effect on packed cell volume and the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces (P < 0.05). The programme of two strategic treatments per year was only effective in controlling GI nematodes. It is concluded that a programme of four strategic treatments per year was effective in controlling GI nematodes and F. gigantica and improved weight gain.  相似文献
4.
从机体抗胃肠道线虫的黏膜免疫、胃肠道黏膜的抗原加工与递呈、胃肠道黏膜抵御寄生虫的效应机制等几方面论述了胃肠道线虫的免疫机理和免疫学研究的进展,旨在进一步阐明用免疫介入方法防治胃肠道线虫的理论基础,以解决胃肠道线虫治疗过程中的药物残留以及寄生虫的抗药性问题。  相似文献
5.
Genetic variation at intron 1 of the interferon gamma gene has recently been associated with variation in faecal egg count in Romney, Merino and Soay breeds of sheep. The Texel breed is more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode infection than the Suffolk breed, based on faecal egg count. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to characterise the polymorphisms of intron 1 of the interferon gammagene in Suffolk and Texel sheep, and to determine if the characterised haplotype variants were associated with faecal egg count variation in these breeds. Intron 1 haplotypes and faecal egg measurements were determined for Suffolks (n=113) and Texels (n=135). Four haplotypes were identified in Suffolks (A, B, C and D), two haplotypes as previously described, and two previously unknown haplotypes. However, there was no association between interferon gamma intron 1 haplotype and faecal egg count in Suffolks. In contrast, two previously identified haplotypes (A and B) were present in the Texel breed, and the B haplotype was associated with resistance to nematode infection (P=0.02). These results suggest that intron 1 of the interferon gamma gene has an important role in resistance to nematode infection in the Texel breed.  相似文献
6.
对145只自然感染胃肠线虫的山羊进行了国产表阿佛菌素驱除胃肠线虫的临床疗效试验.单次给药治疗21 d后,其0.1、0.2、0.4 mg/kg组的精计驱虫率均为100%,驱净率分别为100%、100%和90%~100%,粗计驱虫率分别为100%、100%和99.4%~100%,均显著优于阳性对照组(0.15%、0和0)和对照药物盐酸左旋咪唑组(38.4%、35%~85%和66.5%~85.9%)(P<0.05或P<0.01),表明表阿佛菌素具有明显的驱除胃肠线虫作用,其临床推荐剂量为0.2 mg/kg.  相似文献
7.
This study was carried out to validate the efficacy of Spondias mombin, used locally as an anthelmintic, and to standardize the effective dose of the plant extract required for worm control in livestock. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine the direct anthelmintic effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. mombin towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development assay (LDA) was used to investigate the in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle larvae. Another study was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty sheep were selected on the basis of positive faecal egg counts (750 epg). The sheep were allocated randomly to a non-medicated control group (A) or to groups given 125 mg/kg (B), 250 mg/kg (C) or 500 mg/kg (D) of extract, respectively. Sheep in groups B-D were given extracts orally on two days. Individual faecal egg counts were performed on days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. The presence of S. mombin extracts in in vitro cultures of larvae decreased the survival of L3 larvae. The LC50 of the aqueous extract of S. mombin was 0.907 mg/ml, while the LC50 of the ethanolic extract was 0.456 mg/ml. This difference in LC50 was statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean percentage faecal egg reduction of sheep drenched with 500 mg/kg S. mombin extracts was 15.0%, 27.5%, 65.0%, 65.0%, 100.0% against Haenmonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomunm spp., Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. respectively, on day 12. Extracts of S. mombin could find application in the control of helminths in livestock.  相似文献
8.
Communally grazed sheep were dosed at 4-, 12-, 24- or 48-week intervals for 1 year. Dosing every 4 weeks proved to be the most effective (p<0.05), as reflected in a lower worm egg count compared to the 12-, 24- or 48-week intervals. Since most nematode life cycles lie between 3 and 6 weeks, the treatment has to be given during this critical period if maximum economic advantage is to be gained from deworming. However, treating communally grazed sheep every 12 weeks was found to keep worm egg numbers relatively low and may be advantageous in providing seasonal control, especially in semi-arid environments. Dosing communally grazed sheep once or twice a year under the same conditions is not recommended because reinfection appeared to result in similar faecal egg counts to those from the untreated animals (p>0.05).  相似文献
9.
The spread of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in dairy goat farms is of a great concern as probably more than 70% of the flocks are involved. As there are very few other anthelmintic options during the lactating period, we have evaluated the efficacy of copper oxide needles (CON, Copinox, Bayer, UK) in both experimental and natural infections in goats. The curative effect of CON (2–4 g) on existing worm burdens was assessed in goats experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, compared to controls. The preventive effect of CON (4 g) on worm establishment was monitored for 2 months in animals experimentally infected with H. contortus and for 3 months in naturally infected animals on a farm exhibiting predominant infections with T. circumcincta and Oesophagostomum venulosum. In both experimental and natural conditions, the efficacy of CON was nil against Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum infections. In contrast, the efficacy of CON against Haemonchus was clearly established in reducing the worm burden (75%) as well as in lowering the egg output (37–95%) in relation to the establishment of new infections over several weeks. Copper oxide needles may represent an alternative to conventional anthelmintics in the control of Haemonchus infection in some goat farms.  相似文献
10.
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